The NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) is a catabolic enzyme that controls the biological activities of prostaglandins by converting them into inactive keto-metabolites. Here we report the genomic organisation of the complete human PGDH gene and characterise its transcriptional regulation. The PGDH gene spans about 31 kb on chromosome 4 and contains 7 exons. Within 2.4 kb of the 5'-flanking sequence we identified two regions with clustered putative transcription factor binding sites. The distal promoter element PGDH-DE (positions-2152/-1944 relative to the start codon) contains binding sites for Ets and activating protein-1 (AP-1) flanked by two cAMP-responsive element-binding protein binding sites (CREB1, CREB2), whereas the proximal element PGDH-PE (-235/-153) includes an Ets and an AP-1 binding sequence. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay, no high affinity binding of Ets or AP-1 factors was observed with PGDH-PE, whereas we confirmed interaction of members of the Ets, AP-1 and CREB families of transcription factors with PGDH-DE. Transcriptional control of the PGDH promoter was assessed by transiently transfecting JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells. A luciferase reporter gene construct containing the PGDH-PE was not induced by c-jun/c-fos in the absence or presence of co-expressed Ets-1. A construct carrying the PGDH-DE in front of the minimal homologous promoter was activated by co-transfection of expression vectors for AP-1 proteins. Mutation of the AP-1 or CREB2 site reduced the response to c-jun/c-fos, whereas mutation of the Ets site of the distal element reduced basal promoter activity. CREB activated the PGDH-DE construct through the CREB1 site. These results defined the distal element as an integrator of transcriptional regulation by AP-1, Ets and CREB proteins.
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