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Rohita Rangu, Pandora L Wander, Breanne M Barrow, and Sakeneh Zraika

, mechanisms contributing to such β-cell injury, including the critical pathways mediating viral entry, remain poorly characterised. SARS-CoV-2 enters human pancreatic endocrine cells Studies investigating viral entry into islet α and β cells have

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Francesco Maria Egro

islets to the pancreatic lymph nodes, via the expression of chemokine IP10, leading to the abrogation of type 1 diabetes ( Christen et al . 2004 a ). Autoreactive T-cell hyperactivation Christen et al . (2004 a ) showed that viral titre influences the

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Viral Chikani and Ken K Y Ho

Skeletal muscle is a target tissue of GH. Based on its anabolic properties, it is widely accepted that GH enhances muscle performance in sports and muscle function in the elderly. This paper critically reviews information on the effects of GH on muscle function covering structure, protein metabolism, the role of IGF1 mediation, bioenergetics and performance drawn from molecular, cellular and physiological studies on animals and humans. GH increases muscle strength by enhancing muscle mass without affecting contractile force or fibre composition type. GH stimulates whole-body protein accretion with protein synthesis occurring in muscular and extra-muscular sites. The energy required to power muscle function is derived from a continuum of anaerobic and aerobic sources. Molecular and functional studies provide evidence that GH stimulates the anaerobic and suppresses the aerobic energy system, in turn affecting power-based functional measures in a time-dependent manner. GH exerts complex multi-system effects on skeletal muscle function in part mediated by the IGF system.

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Nicola J Smith and Tim R Fenton

8 kb circular genome ( Fig. 1A ) encased in a viral capsid. There are over 200 different genotypes with tropisms for stem cells in the basal layer of either cutaneous or mucosal epithelia, in which the viral life cycle is tightly linked to and

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Julián Nevado, Stephan P Tenbaum, Ana Isabel Castillo, Aurora Sánchez-Pacheco, and Ana Aranda

Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) is responsible for the development of AIDS. It has been suggested that viral replication may involve complex interactions among chromatin-associated pro-viral DNA, cellular

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Viswanath Ragupathy, Wang Xue, Ji Tan, Krishnakumar Devadas, Yamei Gao, and Indira Hewlett

cycles at 95°C for 15 s, and 60°C for 1 min. All samples were run in duplicate. To determine the viral load of the two viruses in a single assay, we developed a multiplex quantitative TaqMan assay. For standard curve, HIV-1 (Cat No: 3443) was obtained

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I Bantounas, L A Phylactou, and J B Uney

mediate the down-regulation of any gene, it was also found that in mammalian cells an anti-viral interferon response (IR) that resulted in the cessation of all protein synthesis was also elicited. Synthetic siRNAs (21–23 nucleotides in length) were shown

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J Bian, X M Bai, Y L Zhao, L Zhang, and Z J Liu

stereotaxically injected into the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The rats were killed at 8 weeks after viral delivery. Fluorescent microscopic image showing EGFP expression in the ARC but not in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Scale bar, 100 μm

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O Verlaeten, C Casery, S Cavagna, D Naville, P Giraudon, M F Belin, M Begeot, and A Bernard

the role of viral infection in the etiology of human obesity ( Dhurandhar et al. 1997 , 2000 , 2002 ) and provided a better knowledge of the molecular changes associated with obesity. In order to investigate brain damage leading to obesity, we used

Open access

Shalinee Dhayal, Kaiyven Afi Leslie, Mohammad Baity, Pouria Akhbari, Sarah J Richardson, Mark A Russell, and Noel G Morgan

type 1 diabetes are a variety of interferons (IFN) including the type I interferon, IFNα, which is likely to emanate primarily from the β-cells themselves ( Foulis et al. 1987 ). IFNα is induced in response to viral infection and there is now