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Xianjie Wen and Yisheng Yang

Introduction Type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) share some clinical and pathologic similarities, presenting with hyperglycemia resulting from islet β cell dysfunction and/or defect of insulin action. Hyperglycemia associated with both T1D

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Jan Christiansen, Astrid M Kolte, Thomas v O Hansen and Finn C Nielsen

development and are essential for normal embryonic growth and development. Based on a series of genome-wide association (GWA) studies, IMP2 was recently implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we review the molecular properties of the IMP family and IMP2

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Neil W Salter, Sudharsana R Ande, Hoa K Nguyen, B L Grégoire Nyomba and Suresh Mishra

locus for non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes in linkage studies and is believed to contain more than one susceptibility gene ( Ji et al . 1997 , Zouali et al . 1997 , Ghosh et al . 1999 ). One such gene is hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α ( HNF4A

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Haihua Yang and Linghai Yang

– 733 . ( doi:10.1038/35055575 ) Ahren B 2009 Islet G protein-coupled receptors as potential targets for treatment of type 2 diabetes . Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery 8 369 – 385 . ( doi:10.1038/nrd2782 ) Almahariq M Mei FC Cheng

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Guojun Shi, Chen Sun, Weiqiong Gu, Minglan Yang, Xiaofang Zhang, Nan Zhai, Yan Lu, Zhijian Zhang, Peishun Shou, Zhiguo Zhang and Guang Ning

patients and their insulin secretion. Figure 1 FFAR2 expression is elevated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. (A) Relative FFAR2 mRNA expression in PBMCs of patients with recent-onset T1D ( n =33) and

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J Rasschaert, M-H Giroix, I Conget, D Mercan, V Leclercq-Meyer, A Sener, B Portha and W J Malaisse

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the metabolic and secretory responses of pancreatic islets from animals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes to d-glucose with the effects of the methyl esters of succinic acid (SME) and glutamic acid (GME). The insulin secretory response to d-glucose was impaired in islets from rats with diabetes which was either inherited (Goto—Kakizaki (GK) rats) or acquired (streptozotocin-treated (STZ) rats). This coincided with a preferential alteration of oxidative relative to total glycolysis in intact islets and a selective defect of FAD-linked mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (m-GDH) in islet homogenates. This enzymatic defect was also found in purified B cells from STZ rats. It contrasted both with unaltered activities of glutamate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in the islets of diabetic animals and with a normal or even increased activity of m-GDH in the livers of GK and STZ rats. The oxidation of [1,4-14C]SME and [U-14C]GME appeared decreased in islets of GK or STZ animals when compared with control rats, but no significant difference between control and diabetic rats was observed when the oxidative data were expressed relative to the rate of [U-14C]GME hydrolysis. Nevertheless, the absolute values for insulin release evoked by a non-metabolized analogue of l-leucine (BCH), by SME and by the association of BCH with either SME or GME were invariably lower in islets of GK and STZ rats than in those of control animals. These findings indicate that the enzymatic and metabolic situation in islets of GK and STZ rats could allow the expression of the insulinotropic potential of SME and GME, even if their immediate secretory effects are impaired in the islets of these diabetic animals.

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Heather C Denroche and C Bruce Verchere

Introduction Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin), the main constituent of insoluble amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), is secreted from pancreatic beta cells at a level of approximately 1

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Thierry Brun and Benoit R Gauthier

2030 ( www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/diabetes/en ). Diabetes mellitus was recently reclassified into three main entities: 1) type 1 diabetes which is linked to selective autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells, 2) type 2

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Mingtong Xu, Xiaochao Chen, Li Yan, Hua Cheng and Weiqing Chen

Introduction Diabetic nephropathy is a severe long-term complication of both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, which is considered as one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease requiring either dialysis or renal transplantation. Although the

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Young Ho Suh, Younyoung Kim, Jeong Hyun Bang, Kyoung Suk Choi, June Woo Lee, Won-Ho Kim, Tae Jeong Oh, Sungwhan An and Myeong Ho Jung

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease involving abnormal carbohydrate regulation and lipid metabolism by insulin ( Saltiel 2001 ). Insulin resistance, characterized as decreased insulin action on glucose