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Yun-Qing Zhu, Yun Hu, Ke He, Na Li, Peng Jiang, Yu-Qin Pan, Hong Zhou, and Xiao-Ming Mao

remodel in a variety of tissues, exhibiting particular features and functions associated with local tissues. The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ. The main function of the thyroid is synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (THs, T 3 and

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Michela Zamboni, Georgios Strimpakos, Eleonora Poggiogalle, Lorenzo M Donini, and Donato Civitareale

Introduction The thyroid transcription factor 2 (TTF-2), also named FoxE1, is crucial for both thyroid gland development and thyroid homeostasis ( Fernández et al. 2015 ). It is a forkhead-containing protein involved in thyroid-specific gene

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Maria Rossing

Introduction Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer of the endocrine organs and its incidence has increased over recent decades ( Kondo et al . 2006 ). The majority of thyroid carcinomas derive from follicular thyroid cells, also known as thyroid

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Michelle Mohyi and Terry J Smith

Introduction Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) encompasses the ocular manifestations of the autoimmune syndrome known as Graves’ disease (GD) ( Smith & Hegedus 2016 ). The thyroid dysfunction associated with GD is attributable to loss of

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Eva D'Amico, Stéphanie Gayral, Claude Massart, Jacqueline Van Sande, Jeremy F Reiter, Jacques E Dumont, Bernard Robaye, and Stéphane Schurmans

Introduction Little is known about molecular motors responsible for intracellular traffic in thyroid follicle cells. However, like in other polarized cells, thyroid proteins must specifically reach the apical or basolateral membrane to be functional

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Ana Pestana, João Vinagre, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, and Paula Soares

reported the presence of recurrent somatic mutations in other types of cancer, namely in central nervous system, bladder, liver, thyroid, skin and others ( Killela et al. 2013 , Liu et al. 2013 a , Nault et al. 2013 , Scott et al. 2013 , Vinagre

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Henrik Fagman and Mikael Nilsson

normally located thyroid gland. With the higher TSH screening cutoff (20 mU/l) that has traditionally been used, impaired structural development of the thyroid gland (thyroid dysgenesis, TD) is instead the leading cause of CH ( Corbetta et al . 2009 ). TD

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Karen Jesus Oliveira, Maria Isabel Chiamolera, Gisele Giannocco, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, and Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho

chemicals and bioactive compounds in food on the reproductive system. In addition to effects on the reproductive system, endocrine disruptors also affect different endocrine glands, including the thyroid, a fundamental gland for neural development. Thyroid

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Ikuhiro Maeda, Toru Takano, Hiroshi Yoshida, Fumio Matsuzuka, Nobuyuki Amino, and Akira Miyauchi

Introduction Thyroid-specific genes, such as thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (TG), Na + /I − symporter (NIS) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) play fundamental roles in the functions of thyroid follicular cells

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Amy Warner and Jens Mittag

Introduction Thyroid hormone has long been known for its profound effects on the metabolic rate and cardiovascular function ( Magnus-Levy 1895 , Klein & Ojamaa 2001 ). This becomes most evident in hyperthyroidism, which is accompanied by an