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Martin Petkovich and Pierre Chambon

). Cellular-binding proteins for vitamin A (retinol) and its active derivative, retinoic acid (RA), CRBP, and CRABP, had been discovered by that time and it had been proposed that CRABP might be involved in mediating the effects of RA on gene expression

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Marie Berenguer and Gregg Duester

Introduction The history of retinoic acid (RA) signaling began with the discovery that its precursor vitamin A (also called retinol) is essential for embryonic growth and development as shown by vitamin A deficiency studies ( Wilson et al

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Jan Wilde, Maria Erdmann, Michael Mertens, Gabriele Eiselt, and Martin Schmidt

aromatase expression in breast adipose fibroblasts (BAFs). In this study, we show that ligands of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs), all- trans -RA (at-RA) and 9- cis -RA (9 cis -RA), induce aromatase activity in human BAFs via a retinoic acid response

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Vincent Giguère and Ronald M Evans

history of vitamin A and of the unanticipated discovery that its receptor would be a member of the nuclear receptor family now referred to as the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ( Giguère et al. 1987 ). A companion article in this commemorative issue

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Victoria Korsos and Wilson H Miller Jr

clinical and laboratory findings still constitutes a medical emergency. The hematologist-oncologist must swiftly make a morphologic diagnosis and initiate treatment using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) without delay until APL has been ruled in or out to

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Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, and Xiaoli Chen

-adrenergic receptor signaling-independent pathway. LCN2 deficiency impairs retinoic acid-induced beiging and thermogenesis in Lcn2 −/− inguinal adipocytes RA has previously been shown to increase UCP1 expression, lipolysis, mitochondrial function and

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Michael D Griswold

supply of the required number of gametes ( Dym et al. 1979 , 1987 , Sharpe 1994 , Eddy 1998 , Sharma 2011 ). A primary system that has evolved to control these mechanisms is the synthesis and degradation of, and signaling by, retinoic acid (RA

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Fraydoon Rastinejad

Introduction The retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are the earliest and most intensely studied nuclear receptors (NRs) for their three-dimensional (3D) structures. Both receptor groups bind to retinoic acids (RAs

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You-Hong Cheng, Hiroki Utsunomiya, Mary Ellen Pavone, Ping Yin, and Serdar E Bulun

. 1995 , Meyer et al . 1996 , Morriss-Kay & Ward 1999 , Bastien & Rochette-Egly 2004 ). Active retinoids occur in three forms: alcohol (retinol), aldehyde (retinal or retinaldehyde), and acid (retinoic acid, RA). In the human body, retinol is the

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Russell Snyder and Thomas Thekkumkara

essential dietary nutrient important for supporting a healthy immune system, maintaining normal eyesight and red blood cell production, and facilitating growth and development through gene transcriptional control ( Blomhoff 1994 ). Retinoic acid, a