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Ye Zhou, Maya Otto-Duessel, Miaoling He, Susan Markel, Tim Synold, and Jeremy O Jones

Introduction Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway are intimately associated with prostate carcinogenesis, and androgen deprivation therapy remains the most effective way to prevent the growth of metastatic prostate cancer (PC

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Ke-Hung Tsui, Li-Chuan Chung, Shyi-Wu Wang, Tsui-Hsia Feng, Phei-Lang Chang, and Horng-Heng Juang

Introduction Metabolic anomalies in altered forms of flux through key metabolic pathways are primary hallmarks of many malignant tumors including prostate tumors ( Bertilsson et al . 2012 , Costello & Franklin 2012 ). Most cancer cells fulfill

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Ye Zhou, Eric C Bolton, and Jeremy O Jones

Introduction Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death in men worldwide ( Siegel et al . 2013 ). Prostate cancer can often be cured with definitive local intervention (surgery

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Matias Knuuttila, Esa Hämäläinen, and Matti Poutanen

, supporting the hypothesis that these steroids are originating from adrenal precursors ( Turcu et al. 2016 ). Interestingly, remarkable levels of 11KT and 11KDHT were also detected in prostate tissue and plasma of prostate cancer (PCa) patients by LC

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Inge Seim, Amy A Lubik, Melanie L Lehman, Nadine Tomlinson, Eliza J Whiteside, Adrian C Herington, Colleen C Nelson, and Lisa K Chopin

). Ghrelin may play a role in prostate cancer progression, and we have previously demonstrated that ghrelin mRNA and protein is expressed in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues and that ghrelin stimulates cell proliferation in prostate cancer cell lines

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Dimitrios Doultsinos and Ian Mills

The prostate gland – dealing with a heavy workload The prostate gland is a highly metabolically active organ. Secretory luminal prostate cells within the gland are net citrate secretors to provide citrate as a metabolite, which supports ATP

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Liran Zhou, Hong Wu, Peng Lee, and Zhengxin Wang

Introduction The functional androgen-signaling pathway is essential for the development and maintenance of normal prostate glands ( Kokontis & Liao 1999 ). The present model of androgen functions in the prostate gland is that

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Nima Sharifi, Robert J Lechleider, and William L Farrar

al . 1999 ) and SMAD4 deletions are found in pancreatic tumors ( Hahn et al . 1996 ). In prostate cancer, loss of TGFβRI or TGFβRII expression is found in about 30% of cases ( Kim et al . 1996 , Guo et al . 1997 ), but the mechanism of TGF

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C-L Hsieh, Z Xie, Z-Y Liu, J E Green, W D Martin, M W Datta, F Yeung, D Pan, and L W K Chung

Introduction Classic investigations of prostate development and prostate response to androgen have commonly used animals killed after appropriate treatment ( Chung & Auble 1988 , Leav et al. 2001 , Putz et al. 2001 ). The

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Gail P Risbridger, Stuart J Ellem, and Stephen J McPherson

Endocrine signaling As early as the 1940s, endocrinology has played a central part in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) when Charles Huggins and Clarence Hodges discovered a direct relationship between androgenic hormones and