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Gerald Thiel, Isabelle Müller, and Oliver G Rössler

(ankyrin). Many biological functions have been connected with TRP channel activation, including regulation of Ca 2 + homeostasis, tumorigenesis, sensory temperature, and pain sensation. In pancreatic β-cells, several members of the TRP family of cation

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Amanda M Ackermann and Maureen Gannon

Introduction An organism’s β-cell mass is determined by the number and the size of its pancreatic β-cells. This unique cell population is required for insulin production, which maintains glucose homeostasis. Diabetes is characterized

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Zhipeng Li, Zhaoshui Shangguan, Yijie Liu, Jihua Wang, Xuejun Li, Shuyu Yang, and Suhuan Liu

pancreatic islet β-cell mass by immune attack, while T2D is characterized by insulin resistance and β-cell failure resulted from reductions in β-cell function and mass, they do share a common consequence, which is progressive β-cell failure due to apoptosis

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Laura Marroquí, Alejandro Gonzalez, Patricia Ñeco, Ernesto Caballero-Garrido, Elaine Vieira, Cristina Ripoll, Angel Nadal, and Ivan Quesada

Introduction A fine regulation of pancreatic β-cell function is essential for the control of plasma glucose homeostasis and nutrient metabolism. β-cell secretion and mass are dynamic features that adapt in the short and/or long term to the insulin

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K Lindberg, S G Rønn, D Tornehave, H Richter, J A Hansen, J Rømer, M Jackerott, and N Billestrup

Introduction Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in pancreatic β-cell growth and differentiation is fundamental for developing novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. This is the case for both type

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Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Neville H McClenaghan, and Peter R Flatt

Introduction In type 1 diabetes, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL1β), interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), released by autoimmune cells, are important mediators of pancreatic β-cell death ( Cnop et al . 2005

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Seisuke Sato, Hitomi Imachi, Jingya Lyu, Yumi Miyai, Kensaku Fukunaga, Tao Dong, Tomohiro Ibata, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Takuo Yoshimoto, Fumi Kikuchi, Kazuko Yonezaki, Nao Yamaji, Hisakazu Iwama, and Koji Murao

TNF-α played a role in impaired secretion of insulin, which frequently occurs in type 2 diabetes ( Donath et al. 2003 ). In pancreatic β-cells, TNF-α alone inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) ( Zhang & Kim 1995 , Dunger et al

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Shalinee Dhayal, Francesco P Zummo, Matthew W Anderson, Patricia Thomas, Hannah J Welters, Catherine Arden, and Noel G Morgan

Introduction Chronic exposure of pancreatic β-cells to long-chain saturated fatty acids in vitro is associated with a phenomenon often referred to as ‘lipotoxicity’ in which the cells display secretory dysfunction and, ultimately, an

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Yu-Feng Zhao, Li Wang, Dingjun Zha, Li Qiao, Lianjun Lu, Jun Yu, Ping Qu, Qiang Sun, Jianhua Qiu, and Chen Chen

the GlaxoSmithKline chemical collection in 2006 ( Briscoe et al . 2006 ). In previous reports about FFARs actions on pancreatic β-cells, FFAs were commonly used as agonists of FFARs, but the effects of GW9508 on β-cell function were seldom reported

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Laura de Miguel-Santos, Elisa Fernández-Millán, María Ángeles Martín, Fernando Escrivá, and Carmen Álvarez

al . 1997 ), associated to the stimulation of β-cell proliferation due to locally increased pancreatic IGF-1 and islet IRS-2 production ( Martín et al . 2005 , Fernández et al . 2007 ). Nevertheless, food restriction continued after birth induced a