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Sumaira Z Hasnain, Johannes B Prins and Michael A McGuckin

reticulum (ER) stress in β-cell dysfunction in T2D. We first overview insulin biosynthesis and secretion, summarise the features of progression of diabetes. We then detail the significance of oxidative and ER stress in β-cell homeostasis and dysfunction

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Tae Woo Jung, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Yong Kyoo Shin, Hyeyoung Min, Seong-Wan Cho, Zi Soo Kim, Su Mi Han, A M Abd El-Aty, Ahmet Hacımüftüoğlu and Ji Hoon Jeong

al. 2016 ). Recently, the aqueous extract of H. japonicus (AH) was shown to alleviate hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice ( Chung et al. 2018 ). However, the effects of AH on browning and oxidative stress

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Evgeny Weinberg, Tal Maymon and Miron Weinreb

al . 2003 ), or distraction osteogenesis ( Thrailkill et al . 2005 )) is diminished in diabetic animals. In recent years, substantial attention has been paid to the role that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidative stress (OxS) might

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Keiichi Ikeda, Katsuyoshi Tojo, Yuri Inada, Yuko Takada, Masaya Sakamoto, May Lam, William C Claycomb and Naoko Tajima

pathophysiological role in the diseased heart because CRH-R2 signaling in the heart may be very important for adaptation to cardiac stress in pathological conditions ( Coste et al . 2000 ). Ucn I may be regulated in response to oxidative stress, thereby exerting a

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Sarah X Zhang, Joshua J Wang, Azar Dashti, Kenneth Wilson, Ming-Hui Zou, Luke Szweda, Jian-Xing Ma and Timothy J Lyons

). Moreover, HOG-LDL decreases the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 in retinal perictyes ( Barth et al . 2007 ). Here, we hypothesize that HOG-LDL is a potent inducer of MCP-1 generation and oxidative stress in the retina, and that PEDF

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Inagadapa J N Padmavathi, Kalashikam Rajender Rao and Manchala Raghunath

, impaired insulin secretion, increased oxidative stress, and appeared to predispose the Wistar/NIN (WNIN) rat offspring to IR and associated diseases in later life ( Venu et al . 2004 a , b , 2005 , 2008 , Padmavathi et al . 2009 ). Trivalent chromium

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Carmela Santangelo, Paola Matarrese, Roberta Masella, Maria Chiara Di Carlo, Angela Di Lillo, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Elio Vecci, Walter Malorni, Riccardo Perfetti and Emanuela Anastasi

al. 1998 a ). In vitro studies indicate that long-term exposure of β-cell to FFAs induces adverse effects on mitochondrial function, with elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, consequently, increased oxidative stress leading to

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See-Tong Pang, Wen-Chi Hsieh, Cheng-Keng Chuang, Chun-Hsiang Chao, Wen-Hui Weng and Horng-Heng Juang

-stranded oligonucleotide (ChoRE) containing the carbohydrate response element but not when challenged with oligonucleotide featuring a mutation at the ChREBP binding site (ChoREm). Discussion TXNIP mediates oxidative stress via suppression of TRX, a thio reductase with

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Xueyao Yin, Fenping Zheng, Qianqian Pan, Saifei Zhang, Dan Yu, Zhiye Xu and Hong Li

explain the progression of NAFLD ( Day & James 1998 ). The first hit is the development of hepatic steatosis, and the second hit includes oxidative, metabolic and cytokine stresses that overwhelm hepatocyte survival mechanisms, leading to hepatocyte death

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S Najib and V Sánchez-Margalet

vascular dysfunction produced by homocysteine (Blundel et al. 1996, Loscalzo 1996 ). Another independent risk factor for atherosclerosis is insulin resistance ( Ferrannini et al. 1991 , Reaven 1993 ), and oxidative stress is supposed to be a