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Michiyo Ishida, Midori Maehara, Tsukasa Watanabe, Yu Yanagisawa, Yukiko Takata, Ryojun Nakajima, Mika Suzuki and Toshio Harigaya

in vivo but no reduction in tumor size or formation ( Faupel-Badger et al . 2010 ). Conversely, high levels of Cath D activity during involution would favor the generation of the N-terminal mouse PRL (mPRL) fragment and thus would inhibit blood

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Margarita M Ivanova, Brandie N Radde, Jieun Son, Fabiola F Mehta, Sang-Hyuk Chung and Carolyn M Klinge

these coactivators in uterus or MG. One study reported that E 2 reduced PGC-1α specifically in the uteri of immature and adult mice ( Macari et al . 2010 ). Concordantly, ovariectomy increased PGC-1α in mouse brain endothelial cells ( Kemper et al

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Nils Wierup, Frank Sundler and R Scott Heller

given the name ghrelin, for its ability to stimulate growth hormone (GH) secretion (GH-relin). Independently, searching for genes with expression restricted to the gastric epithelium, Tomasetto et al . (2000) discovered an mRNA in the mouse stomach

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S Kerkhofs, S Denayer, A Haelens and F Claessens

the physiological role of androgens. However, to further the in vivo studies, the development of AR knockout and knock-in mouse models are crucial. Here, we review the different models and compare them with human diseases. Comparison of complete AIS

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L G Perez-Rivas, Y Rhayem, S Sabrautzki, C Hantel, B Rathkolb, M Hrabě de Angelis, M Reincke, F Beuschlein and A Spyroglou

aldosterone secretion. Furthermore, they can be used for the investigation of cardiovascular effects of autonomous aldosterone synthesis on several organs and can serve for pharmacologic intervention studies. So far, though, only a few mouse models have been

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Satoshi Takizawa, Tsuyoshi Uchide, Javier Adur, Takaharu Kozakai, Eiichi Kotake-Nara, Jiexia Quan and Kaname Saida

. Whereas ETA binds ET-1 and ET-2 under physiological conditions, ETB binds all three ETs with equal affinity. Mammalian ET-2 has a mouse and rat ortholog known as vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC). VIC differs from human ET-2 by one amino acid

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C-L Hsieh, Z Xie, Z-Y Liu, J E Green, W D Martin, M W Datta, F Yeung, D Pan and L W K Chung

results of these types of studies are susceptible to individual variations among mouse strains regardless of genetic background, potential effects of experimental manipulation on tissues harvested from animals, and a lack of real-time information during

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Kelly L Short, A Daniel Bird, Bennet K L Seow, Judy Ng, Annie R A McDougall, Megan J Wallace, Stuart B Hooper and Timothy J Cole

& Howie 1972 , Roberts & Dalziel 2006 ). There is, however, limited understanding of the important GC-regulated molecular mechanisms and gene networks in the developing lung required for normal development. Studies using global or conditional mouse

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Nadia Bellofiore, Fiona Cousins, Peter Temple-Smith, Hayley Dickinson and Jemma Evans

development of pregnancy complications specific to menstruating species, and infertility of non-gonadal origin remain elusive ( Salamonsen 2003 , Brosens et al . 2009 , Treloar et al . 2010 ). We recently discovered the common or Egyptian spiny mouse

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Chan Soo Shin, Min Jae Jeon, Jae-Yeon Yang, Sun-Ju Her, Dohee Kim, Sang Wan Kim and Seong Yeon Kim

rat osteocalcin promoter, which resides in close proximity to the Runx2 element ( Gutierrez et al. 2002 ), and C/EBPβ and -δ were found synergistically to activate osteocalcin promoter. Although rat and mouse osteocalcin promoters have much in common