Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 43 items for :

  • median eminence x
Clear All
Restricted access

L. M. Williams

ABSTRACT

Using picomolar concentrations of [125I]iodomelatonin and in-vitro autoradiography, specific melatonin-binding sites have been mapped in the rat brain and pituitary. Using this same technique, high-affinity melatonin receptors had previously been identified in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and median eminence regions of the rat hypothalamus. The presence of melatonin binding in the SCN has been confirmed, but the second area of binding has been identified as the pars tuberalis of the pituitary, and a completely novel area of binding is also reported in the area postrema. The existence of lower affinity melatonin receptors in the rat brain was also investigated using in-vitro autoradiography and higher concentrations of [125I]iodomelatonin. No further sites of specific binding were, however, disclosed.

Restricted access

F Aguado, J Rodrigo, L Cacicedo and B Mellström

ABSTRACT

The distribution and regulation of mRNA for the IGF-I receptor (IGF-I-R) in the adult rat brain were studied by in-situ hybridization with a 35S-labelled cRNA probe. The pituitary gland showed a strong hybridization signal in the pars tuberalis (the surface of the median eminence), pars distalis and pars intermedia. Within the brain, a strong hybridization signal was found in the circumventricular organs, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus.

IGF-I-R mRNA was consistently found in cell bodies of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial systern. Six days of intermittent salt-loading resulted in an increase in IGF-I-R gene expression in the supraoptic nucleus. The increase in IGF-I-R mRNA was accompanied by a high expression of c-Fos immunoreactivity in the same cells. The presence and regulation of IGF-I-R mRNA in the hypothalamus suggest that IGF-I may affect the local plasticity or modulation of activated magnocellular neurones by an autocrine or paracrine action through specific receptors in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

Free access

Y Chaiseha, Z Tong, OM Youngren and ME El Halawani

To characterize further vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) as the prolactin-releasing factor in avian species, the present study examined hypothalamic VIP transcription and plasma prolactin (PRL) levels during the turkey reproductive cycle. The contribution of transcription to hypothalamic VIP mRNA steady-state levels and VIP content in response to gonadal stimulating photoperiod was also investigated. Nuclear run-on transcription assays were performed using nuclei isolated from hypothalami. Cytoplasmic VIP mRNA levels, and VIP content in the median eminence and plasma PRL levels were determined by Northern blot analysis and radioimmunoassays respectively. The alterations in VIP transcription mirrored the changes in cytoplasmic VIP mRNA and VIP content during the reproductive stages. VIP transcription, cytoplasmic VIP mRNA level and VIP content were lowest in non-photostimulated birds, higher (P<0.05) in laying hens, and greatest (P<0.05) in incubating birds. These increases paralleled the changes in circulating plasma PRL levels. Changes in VIP transcription (P>0.05) were not observed during the transition from incubation to photorefractoriness, even though there was a sharp decline in circulating plasma PRL levels (P<0.05). Following photostimulation, VIP transcription, cytoplasmic VIP mRNA levels, and VIP content increased as the hens progressed towards sexual maturity (P<0.05), and these increases were correlated with an increased plasma PRL level. These results suggest that VIP is regulated in large part at the transcriptional level during the turkey reproductive cycle and that this transcriptional regulation is coupled to the photo-induced increase in PRL secretion.

Free access

XJ Pi and DR Grattan

This study investigated expression of prolactin receptor (PRL-R) mRNA in selected hypothalamic nuclei of lactating rats (days 7-10 post partum) compared with dioestrous rats. Rat brains were frozen with liquid nitrogen and cut into coronal sections of 300 microm. From these sections, tissues were micropunched from the parietal cortex (CTX), choroid plexus (ChP), and five hypothalamic regions: supraoptic (SO), paraventricular (Pa), arcuate (Arc) and ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) nuclei, and median eminence (ME). Expression of both short and long forms of PRL-R mRNA were evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR and Southern hybridisation. The results showed that the relative amount of short form mRNA in the ChP of lactating rats was significantly higher than in dioestrous rats. The short form of PRL-R mRNA was undetectable in the SO, Pa, VMH of dioestrous rats but was expressed at a significant level in lactating rats. Levels of long form mRNA in the ChP, SO, Pa and VMH in lactating rats were significantly increased compared with dioestrous rats. Moreover, the long form mRNA was induced in the CTX of lactating rats. In the Arc, levels of both forms of PRL-R mRNA tended to increase in lactating rats compared with dioestrous rats but changes were not statistically significant. Neither form of PRL-R mRNA was detectable in the ME in the two animal models. Increased expression of PRL-R mRNA in specific brain regions during lactation is consistent with the variety of PRL effects on the brain, and may help to explain profound physiological changes in the lactating mother.

Restricted access

M. G. Castro, P. R. Lowenstein, P. W. Saphier, E. A. Linton and P. J. Lowry

ABSTRACT

We have expressed human pre-procorticotrophin-releasing hormone (pre-proCRH) as a fusion protein to β-galactosidase in Escherichia coli. The chimeric fusion protein was found in insoluble bacterial inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were isolated, purified and solubilized, and used as imunogens in rabbits to raise antibodies against the neuropeptide moiety. The antibodies generated were characterized by immunoassays and immunocytochemical techniques. The immunoassay results showed that the recombinant pre-proCRH antibodies cross-reacted with the full-length CRH precursor and several cleavage products derived from it, i.e. CRH(1–41) and CRH(36–41). They did not cross-react with the CRH antagonist CRH(9–41). Extracts of stalk median eminence from various species were also studied. The antibodies cross-reacted with extracts from ovine, bovine, human and rat tissues, exhibiting parallel displacement curves to that of synthetic rat/human CRH(1–41) used as standard. They also cross-reacted with a skin extract of the frog, a species known to contain a CRH-related peptide, i.e. sauvagine, in this tissue. The immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that the antibodies generated against recombinant human preproCRH labelled neurones in the rat paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. They exhibited the same pattern of staining as that obtained with an antibody generated against synthetic CRH(1–41). The results indicate that these antibodies can recognize CRH(1–41) or CRH-related molecules in the hypothalamus in situ as well as in tissue extracts from several species. Hence, they will be useful tools in the study of the CRH biosynthetic pathway and its intracellular compartmentalization.

Free access

V Compère, D Lanfray, H Castel, F Morin, J Leprince, B Dureuil, H Vaudry, G Pelletier and M C Tonon

the third and lateral ventricles, and tanycytes of the median eminence ( Fig. 1A and B ), where DBI mRNA colocalized with the astroglial cell marker GFAP ( Fig. 1F and G ). The present work demonstrates, for the first time, that food deprivation

Free access

Céline Callewaere, Ghazal Banisadr, William Rostène and Stéphane Mélik Parsadaniantz

in the posterior pituitary parallel to an increase in serum in response to stress immobilization, suggesting that CINC, synthesized in the PVN, could be axonally transported through the median eminence and released into the peripheral blood from the

Free access

William Rostene and Julia C Buckingham

projecting from the SON and PVN through the median eminence to the neurohypophysis. He also shows, using electrophysiological techniques in vivo and in vitro , that SDF-1α acts in the SON via CXCR4 to modulate the firing pattern of AVP neurons. SDF-1α thus

Free access

Dominique H Eghlidi, Vasilios T Garyfallou, Steven G Kohama and Henryk F Urbanski

et al. 2010 ), the boundaries for this tissue block included the exterior ventral edge of the hypothalamic median eminence, lateral cuts midway between the third ventricle and the optic nerve, an anterior cut along the posterior edge of the optic

Free access

Matei Bolborea, Gisela Helfer, Francis J P Ebling and Perry Barrett

Introduction The interface between the third ventricle, hypothalamic neuropil and median eminence is composed of cuboidal ependymal cells and specialised ependymoglial cells called tanycytes. These cells have a distinct morphology. They interface