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Xilin Yang, Zezhang Tao, Zhanyong Zhu, Hua Liao, Yueqiang Zhao and Huajun Fan

Introduction Insulin is an important peptide hormone produced by pancreatic β-cells ( Moore & Cooper 1991 , Sonoda et al . 2008 ). It promotes the uptake of glucose from the blood to skeletal muscles and fat tissue; therefore, it plays a

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Yu-Feng Zhao, Li Wang, Dingjun Zha, Li Qiao, Lianjun Lu, Jun Yu, Ping Qu, Qiang Sun, Jianhua Qiu and Chen Chen

. There are only reports showing that GW9508 potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in insulinoma cell lines such as MIN6 cells and INS-1E cells ( Briscoe et al . 2006 , Yang et al . 2010 ). And it was shown that GW9508 does not

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Chanchal Gupta and Kulbhushan Tikoo

significantly contribute to diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. It has been recognized as a risk factor for various malignancies, including breast, endometrial, colon, and

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Rafaela Fadoni Alponti, Luciana Godoy Viana, Norma Yamanouye and Paulo Flavio Silveira

Introduction During the prandial period, insulin stimulates the translocation of an intracellular vesicle from low density microsomal (LDM) fraction to the plasma membrane (MF) of adipocytes ( Watson & Pessin 2001 , Zeyda & Stulnig 2009 , Jordens

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Inge Seim, Amy A Lubik, Melanie L Lehman, Nadine Tomlinson, Eliza J Whiteside, Adrian C Herington, Colleen C Nelson and Lisa K Chopin

functions, including regulation of adipogenesis, insulin secretion and pancreatic homeostasis and cancer cell progression ( Zhang et al . 2005 , Seim et al . 2011 b ). Following cleavage of the signal peptide, the 94 amino acid proghrelin peptide is post

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Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr and Xiaoli Chen

expression of PPARγ in brown and WAT depots and chronic treatment with rosiglitazone has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and cold intolerance in these mice ( Jin et al . 2011 ). Further studies have found LCN2 regulates RA metabolism and action in

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Gemma Tan, Andrew G Elefanty and Edouard G Stanley

1 diabetes is thought to result from T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β-cells and is believed to have a genetic component (reviewed in Concannon et al . (2009) ), although, recently, both these contentions have been

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Haihua Yang and Linghai Yang

inputs from food absorption and hepatic release can be either inhibited or increased by neural signals from the brain. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) is increased by glucagon during fasting and inhibited by insulin after food absorption. Insulin also

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Maggie C Evans and Greg M Anderson

axis, we know from both animal and clinical studies that certain nutritional signals, such as leptin, insulin and ghrelin, exert a more critical influence over GNRH/LH pulsatility (and thus fertility) than others and that in at least some cases their

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Xianjie Wen and Yisheng Yang

Introduction Type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) share some clinical and pathologic similarities, presenting with hyperglycemia resulting from islet β cell dysfunction and/or defect of insulin action. Hyperglycemia associated with both T1D