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Francesco Maria Egro

al . (1999) reported that the global incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing by 3% per year. The DIAMOND Project Group (2006) estimated a global annual increase in incidence of 2.8% from 1990 to 1999. There has been a lot of debate, and

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Rose Kohlie, Nina Perwitz, Julia Resch, Sebastian M Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert, Johannes Klein, and K Alexander Iwen

.g. treatment of adipocytes causes an increase of UCP1 concentrations as well as an induction of lipolysis and subsequently a rise of free fatty acid (FFA) levels ( Collins et al . 2010 ). FFA themselves can further increase UCP1 activity, but they may also

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Yunxia Zhang, Jin Li, Hui-hui Wang, Jiao Li, Yue Yu, Bo Li, Li Huang, Changjing Wu, and Xiaomeng Liu

-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cancer, all of which reduce life quality as well as lifespan ( López-Suárez 2019 ). The obesity develops because of excessive food intake or inadequate total energy expenditure (TEE). Based on this, caloric restriction and increasing exercise are

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Z Ma, D F J Ketelhuth, T Wirström, T Ohki, M J Forteza, H Wang, V Grill, C B Wollheim, and A Björklund

Introduction Dyslipidemia in diabetes is characterized by elevated triglycerides, low concentrations of HDL and increased concentrations of small dense LDL-cholesterol particles, including oxidized LDL (oxLDL) ( Mooradian 2009 ). A link

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Rong Wan, Yunxin Liu, Li Li, Chao Zhu, Lai Jin, and Shengnan Li

Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are the leading fatal diseases. Increased evidence shows that vascular inflammation plays a key role in the initiation and progression of many diseases, including atherosclerosis ( Ricciotti & FitzGerald 2011

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Naoki Hattori, Ayato Yamada, Shunya Nakatsuji, Takeshi Matsuda, Norito Nishiyama, and Akira Shimatsu

, Straub & Scherer 2019 ). Pioglitazone, a full agonist of PPARγ that is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, increases the expression of adiponectin, which enhances sensitivity to insulin ( Hirose et al. 2002 ). Leptin reduces food intake

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Jin-Seung Choung, Young-Sun Lee, and Hee-Sook Jun

neuroprotective effects ( Liu et al . 2010 , Briyal et al . 2014 ). As well, GLP1 has been shown to affect energy metabolism. During hyperglycaemic clamping, GLP1 administration increased energy expenditure in humans ( Shalev et al . 1997 ). In addition

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Chikahito Suda, Junichi Yatabe, Midori Yatabe, Miki Yarita, and Atsuhiro Ichihara

usefulness of s(P)RR as a disease marker, specific function of s(P)RR had not been elucidated until a recent study showed that s(P)RR increases aquaporin 2 expression in collecting duct cells via frizzled class receptor 8-dependent β-catenin signaling ( Lu

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Xueyao Yin, Fenping Zheng, Qianqian Pan, Saifei Zhang, Dan Yu, Zhiye Xu, and Hong Li

has increased dramatically in recent years and affects 15–30% of the general population ( Bellentani & Marino 2009 ). However, in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the prevalence of NAFLD is up to 70% ( Targher et al . 2007 , Leite et al

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David M Selva and Geoffrey L Hammond

levels of SHBG in infants increase within the first 2–3 weeks after birth, and this has been attributed to a postnatal maturation of hepatic sensitivity to thyroid hormones ( Leger et al . 1990 ). Plasma SHBG levels are also commonly elevated beyond