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Kazuya Kusama, Mikihiro Yoshie, Kazuhiro Tamura, Kazuhiko Imakawa and Eiichi Tachikawa

protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) is a cAMP-mediated signaling effector whose function is distinct from the classical PKA-signaling pathway ( Kawasaki et al . 1998 , de Rooij et al . 1998 ). EPAC has two isoforms, EPAC1 (RAPGEF3) and EPAC2

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Erika Peverelli, Giovanna Mantovani, Andrea G Lania and Anna Spada

responsive genes. Epac1/2 are exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP that mediates several cAMP effects by acting as guanine-nucleotide exchange factors for Ras-proximate 1 and 2 (Rap1 and 2). GHRHR, growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor; CRHR

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Davide Calebiro, Viacheslav O Nikolaev and Martin J Lohse

that are based on either the entire coding sequence of the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac; DiPilato et al . 2004 , Ponsioen et al . 2004 ) or on just a single cAMP-binding domain derived from such cAMP-binding proteins ( Nikolaev et al

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Guillaume Pidoux and Kjetil Taskén

. cAMP (red filled circles) has effects on a range of effector molecules encompassing 1) PKA, 2) PDEs, 3) guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) known as exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epacs), and 4) cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels

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Haihua Yang and Linghai Yang

proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac). The role of Epac in the regulation of metabolism has been recently reviewed ( Almahariq et al . 2014 ). The physiological role of PKA in glucose metabolism is increasingly appreciated with the availability of

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Andrei S Chagin and Henry M Kronenberg

, also known as the cAMP-dependent protein kinase or A kinase), cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors 1 and 2 (Epac1 and Epac2), and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels ( Freissmuth et al . 1989 , Simon et al . 1991 , Kaupp & Seifert

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Dong-Jae Jun, Kyung-Yoon Na, Wanil Kim, Dongoh Kwak, Eun-Jeong Kwon, Jong Hyuk Yoon, Kyungmoo Yea, Hyeongji Lee, Jaeyoon Kim, Pann-Gill Suh, Sung Ho Ryu and Kyong-Tai Kim

melanocortins activate Il6 production in adipocytes. The cAMP signal transduction pathways can activate the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), which acts independently of PKA ( Holz et al . 2006 ). However, a specific activator of EPAC (8-CPT

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J J Brosens and B Gellersen

Epac (exchange protein activated by cAMP) 1 and 2 ( de Rooij et al. 1998 , Kawasaki et al. 1998 ), this pathway does not appear to play a significant role in cAMP-induced decidualisation ( Gellersen & Brosens 2003 ). In recent years, the

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Nicole Gallo-Payet

cytoskeleton Although cAMP-PKA-Ca 2+ mediates most of the effects of ACTH, a number of PKA-independent effects of cAMP, including involvement of the exchange protein, were directly activated by cAMP (Epac1/2) ( Liu et al . 2010 ). Moreover, the observations

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Sudipta Paul, Sourav Kundu, Kousik Pramanick, Arun Bandyopadhyay and Dilip Mukherjee

RH Nijman SM Wittinghofer A Bos JL 1998 Epac is a Rap1 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor directly activated by cyclic AMP . Nature 396 474 – 477 . doi:10.1038/24884 . Seger R Krebs EG 1995 The MAP kinase signaling cascade