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S Jesmin, C N Mowa, I Sakuma, N Matsuda, H Togashi, M Yoshioka, Y Hattori, and A Kitabatake

Introduction The first report documenting synthesis of estrogen by male gonads was published over half a century ago ( Zondek 1934 , Goldzieher & Roberts 1952 , Leach et al. 1956 , Morse et al. 1962 , Attal 1969 , Raeside

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M Gohin, P Bodinier, A Fostier, J Bobe, and F Chesnel

(Cyp17) appeared to be expressed only by the oocyte in Xenopus ovary ( Yang et al . 2003 ). Cyp17 is a key enzyme mediating androgen production, suggesting that Xenopus oocytes participate in synthesis of estrogen precursors. Moreover, Xenopus

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G Schuler, Y Dezhkam, L Tenbusch, MC Klymiuk, B Zimmer, and B Hoffmann

identified as the favored route of estrogen production in human hormone-dependent breast cancer tissue in comparison to their de novo synthesis ( Santner et al . 1984 , Reed et al . 2005 , Mueller et al . 2015 ). However, information on the relevance

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Denise Vizziano-Cantonnet, Daniel Baron, Sophie Mahè, Chantal Cauty, Alexis Fostier, and Yann Guiguen

Introduction The molecular mechanisms underlying early ovarian development in vertebrates still remain poorly understood ( Loffler & Koopman 2002 , Brennan & Capel 2004 , Yao 2005 ), however, modulation of both estrogen synthesis and estrogen

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Margaret Warner, Xiaotang Fan, Anders Strom, Wanfu Wu, and Jan-Åke Gustafsson

observation. What is clear is that scientists do not make their discoveries in isolation. What was happening in bits and pieces in different labs around the world was the discovery of a pathway for the synthesis of the second estrogen in the body. In each case

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F Gadal, A Starzec, C Bozic, C Pillot-Brochet, S Malinge, V Ozanne, J Vicenzi, L Buffat, G Perret, F Iris, and M Crepin

degradation, cell cycle progression, synthesis of genotoxic metabolites, DNA repair and estrogen receptor constitution/activity, through which estrogen and antiestrogen regulate tumor progression. Materials and methods Cells and

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Alessandro Peri and Mario Serio

until the senile age. With regard to the latter issue, although the neuroprotective role of estrogen is well established, their usefulness in preventing or treating the most common neurodegenerative disease associated with ageing, i.e. Alzheimer

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Ruifang Yang, Xingji You, Xiaolu Tang, Lu Gao, and Xin Ni

the complete absence of progesterone. It has been shown that disruption of progesterone synthesis initiates myometrial contractions or labor and delivery at all stages of pregnancy ( Selinger et al. 1987 , Haluska et al. 1997 ). Progesterone can

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Joan S Lewis, T J Thomas, Richard G Pestell, Chris Albanese, Michael A Gallo, and Thresia Thomas

, Sutter TR, Yager JD, Yue W, Santner SJ, Tekmal R, Demers L, Pauley R, Naftolin F, Mor G & Berstein L 2000 Tissue-specific synthesis and oxidative metabolism of estrogens. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs 27 95 –112

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David R Clemmons

et al. 2010 ). Knockdown of the protease resulted in some resistance to the development of lesions ( Harrington et al. 2007 ). There is additional supporting data in primates wherein estrogen treatment significantly stimulated the synthesis of