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Kamran Ullah, Tanzil Ur Rahman, Hai-Tao Pan, Meng-Xi Guo, Xin-Yan Dong, Juan Liu, Lu-Yang Jin, Yi Cheng, Zhang-Hong Ke, Jun Ren, Xian-Hua Lin, Xiao-Xiao Qiu, Ting-Ting Wang, He-Feng Huang and Jian-Zhong Sheng

Introduction Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is usually examined by serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels for IVF cycles. Serum estradiol (E 2 ), up to a certain level, influences embryonic implantation during COH in a concentration

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Patricia M Lenhart, Stefan Broselid, Cordelia J Barrick, L M Fredrik Leeb-Lundberg and Kathleen M Caron

–GPCR interface for treatment of human disease. RAMP3 is unique among the RAMP family members in that it is transcriptionally induced by estradiol (E 2 ; Hewitt et al . 2005 , Watanabe et al . 2006 ) and has been shown to play a sex-dependent role in the

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H Watanabe, A Suzuki, M Goto, S Ohsako, C Tohyama, H Handa and T Iguchi

weeks later, either sesame oil vehicle (Nakarai Tesque, Kyoto, Japan) or test material was administered to the animals. Whole uteri ( n =4) were collected 6 h after dosing. The doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) (Sigma, Sigma-Aldrich Japan, Tokyo, Japan) were 0

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Agua Sobrino, Pilar J Oviedo, Susana Novella, Andrés Laguna-Fernandez, Carlos Bueno, Miguel Angel García-Pérez, Juan J Tarín, Antonio Cano and Carlos Hermenegildo

thrombosis in veins and coronary arteries, developed in postmenopausal women during the administration of exogenous hormones ( Cano et al . 2007 ). Estradiol (E 2 ) is the most potent estrogen in humans, and exerts its actions mainly through binding and the

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Jürgen M Weiss, Heike Hüller, Stephan Polack, Michael Friedrich, Klaus Diedrich, Oliver Treeck, Georg Pfeiler and Olaf Ortmann

Introduction Previous studies demonstrated that long-term estradiol treatment of rat pituitary gonadotrophs increased basal and agonist-induced LH secretion. The mechanisms are not fully elucidated yet. Modulations of GnRH signal

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Angela M Davis, Jiude Mao, Bushra Naz, Jessica A Kohl and Cheryl S Rosenfeld

Introduction Estradiol has pleiotropic effects in the uterus ( Galand et al . 1971 , Lee 1980 , Yamashita et al . 1990 ). Overall, it functions to prepare the organ for conceptus implantation by promoting proliferation of the endometrial lining

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M Gohin, P Bodinier, A Fostier, J Bobe and F Chesnel

Introduction Estradiol-17β (E 2 ) is known to have pleiotropic effects and important roles in female reproductive function in vertebrates, and characterizing the regulation and function of E 2 synthesis during ovarian follicular growth is a major

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Andrea J Lengi, Rebecca A Phillips, Ebru Karpuzoglu and Sattar Ansar Ahmed

medicine) knockout mice were used. At 4- to 5-weeks of age, mice were orchiectomized and surgically implanted with silastic capsules containing 17β estradiol or empty (placebo) silastic implants, by standard procedures that have been extensively described

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Hisashi Masuyama and Yuji Hiramatsu

to some placental hormones that decrease insulin sensitivity, estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone, could be involved in the gestation-induced insulin resistance because the relatively high concentrations of these hormones, E 2 (100–200 pg/ml) and

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Margarita M Ivanova, Brandie N Radde, Jieun Son, Fabiola F Mehta, Sang-Hyuk Chung and Carolyn M Klinge

Introduction Uterus and mammary gland (MG) are classical estrogen target tissues in which estrogens, e.g. 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), bind estrogen receptors α (ERα) and ERβ to regulate gene expression and physiological functions ( Faulds et al . 2012