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Mohamed H Noureldein, Sara Bitar, Natalie Youssef, Sami Azar, and Assaad A Eid

epigenetic modification through histone deacetylation. In that spirit, butyrate is a widely known histone deacetylation (HDAC) enzyme inhibitor ( Gao et al. 2009 , Donohoe et al. 2012 ). HDAC inhibition by butyrate regulates cellular proliferation

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Belen Brie, Ana Ornstein, Maria Cecilia Ramirez, Isabel Lacau-Mengido, and Damasia Becu-Villalobos

Introduction Many sex differences in liver gene expression originate in the brain, depend on GH secretory patterns, and are imprinted by neonatal gonadal steroids ( Jansson & Frohman 1987 ). There is an emerging interest in the epigenetic

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Diego Russo, Giuseppe Damante, Efisio Puxeddu, Cosimo Durante, and Sebastiano Filetti

cytosine ring that results in a methylcytosine. DNA methylation is a highly stable epigenetic modification (thus far, bona fide DNA demethylases have not been identified in any mammalian species), and it is considered the major obstacle to the reprogramming

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Jiayu Jin, Xinhong Wang, Xiuling Zhi, and Dan Meng

et al. 2012 ). A growing amount of evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms (e.g. histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding (ncRNAs)) form a key interface between environmental factors and genetic predisposition, which responds to

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Sucharitha Iyer and Sunita K Agarwal

distances thereby generating conditions that enhance gene transcription or insulate the regions of gene transcription ( Rowley & Corces 2016 ). ‘Epigenetic changes’ through alterations in DNA and histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and alterations in

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Xiang Zhang and Shuk-Mei Ho

, the effects of the environment or the hormonal milieu on genetics are limited, with nucleotide or chromosomal changes induced by radiation as an example. Epigenetic mechanisms that landscape the genome Epigenetic modifications defined as heritable

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Richard D Emes and William E Farrell

( Holliday & Pugh 1975 , Riggs 1975 ). This heritable epigenetic change targets CpG dinucleotides that together with post-replicative modification of histone proteins ( Turner 1991 , 1998 ) frequently leads to chromatin remodelling and thereby regulates

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B C J Dirven, J R Homberg, T Kozicz, and M J A G Henckens

). The term ‘epigenetics’ refers to reversible chemical modifications to the chromatin structure that alter gene transcription without altering the DNA sequence. These include DNA methylation, DNA hydroxymethylation and histone modifications (i

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Louise Ruby Høj Illum, Stine Thorhauge Bak, Sten Lund, and Anders Lade Nielsen

inheritance through sperm, given that it seems increasingly well established that chromatin modifications and ncRNA (i.e., miRNAs and tRNA-derived fragments) are also key mediators in epigenetic inheritance ( Fullston et al . 2013 , Chen et al . 2016

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Verónica García-Carpizo, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Mario Fraga, and Ana Aranda

cell types during its development, each characterized by a typical gene expression profile and by specific functions. Consequently, cell differentiation might be considered as a largely epigenetic phenomenon. The first epigenetic modification identified