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W M Liu, Y J Cao, Y J Yang, J Li, Z Hu and E-K Duan

the striking similarities between embryogenesis and the biology of cancer cells, especially in the process of the invasion, CD9 might be involved in embryo-invasive behaviors. Embryo implantation is an important step in the establishment of

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Rubab Akbar, Kamran Ullah, Tanzil Ur Rahman, Yi Cheng, Hai-Yan Pang, Lu-Yang Jin, Qi-Jing Wang, He-Feng Huang and Jian-Zhong Sheng

Introduction Endometrial receptivity is critical for successful embryo implantation. It refers to the restricted period when the uterus acquires a suitable morphological and functional state, compatible with blastocyst adhesion and

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Kanchan Gupta, Vijay Kumar Sirohi, Suparna Kumari, Vinay Shukla, Murli Manohar, Pooja Popli and Anila Dwivedi

Introduction Embryo implantation involves a complex sequence of signaling events that are crucial for the establishment of pregnancy ( Cha et al . 2012 ). A large number of identified molecular mediators have been postulated to be involved in

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Francesco J. DeMayo and John Lydon

Progesterone’s ability to maintain pregnancy in eutherian mammals highlighted this steroid as the “hormone of pregnancy”. It was the unique “pro-gestational” bioactivity of progesterone that enabled eventual purification of this ovarian steroid to crystalline form by Willard Myron Allen in the early 1930s. While a functional connection between normal progesterone responses (“progestational proliferation”) of the uterus with the maintenance of pregnancy was quickly appreciated, an understanding of progesterone’s involvement in the early stages of pregnancy establishment was comparatively less well understood. With the aforementioned as historical backdrop, this review focusses on a selection of key advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which progesterone, through its nuclear receptor (the progesterone receptor), drives the development of endometrial receptivity, a transient uterine state that allows for embryo implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. Highlighted in this review are the significant contributions of advanced mouse engineering and genome-wide transcriptomic and cistromic analytics to revealing the pivotal molecular mediators and modifiers that are essential to progesterone-dependent endometrial receptivity and decidualization. With a clearer understanding of the molecular landscape that underpins uterine responsiveness to progesterone during the periimplantation period, we predict that common gynecologic morbidities due to abnormal progesterone responsiveness will be more effectively diagnosed and/or treated in the future.

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Ying Chen, Hua Ni, Xing-Hong Ma, Shi-Jun Hu, Li-Ming Luan, Gang Ren, Yue-Chao Zhao, Shi-Jie Li, Hong-Lu Diao, Xiu Xu, Zhen-Ao Zhao and Zeng-Ming Yang

complex process involving spatio-temporally regulated endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, and juxtacrine modulators that span cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. The successful implantation of an embryo depends upon cellular and molecular dialog between

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I Robertshaw, F Bian and S K Das

.4% ( Boivin et al. 2007 ). Although much advancement has been made using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) to achieve higher pregnancy rates by improving the selection of high-quality embryos, the implantation process is still very illusive. The

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Kamran Ullah, Tanzil Ur Rahman, Hai-Tao Pan, Meng-Xi Guo, Xin-Yan Dong, Juan Liu, Lu-Yang Jin, Yi Cheng, Zhang-Hong Ke, Jun Ren, Xian-Hua Lin, Xiao-Xiao Qiu, Ting-Ting Wang, He-Feng Huang and Jian-Zhong Sheng

receptivity. In humans ( Paulson et al . 1990 , Ng et al . 2000 ) and mice ( Fossum et al . 1989 ), COH led to an increase in estrogen to supraphysiological levels that might compromise embryo implantation, although this contrasts with other reports where

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Kazuya Kusama, Mikihiro Yoshie, Kazuhiro Tamura, Kazuhiko Imakawa and Eiichi Tachikawa

the establishment of uterine receptivity, peri-implantation embryo survival, and embryo implantation as well as placentation ( Cha et al . 2012 ). Endometrial glandular epithelial cells synthesize and secrete implantation-related factors, including

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Fabien Duval, Esther Dos Santos, Hadia Moindjie, Valérie Serazin, Nelly Swierkowski-Blanchard, François Vialard and Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné

Introduction Human embryo implantation is a multi-step process that begins with apposition of trophoblastic cells from a competent blastocyst to the maternal endometrium. This apposition occurs during the ‘window of implantation’, a short

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Nadia Bellofiore, Fiona Cousins, Peter Temple-Smith, Hayley Dickinson and Jemma Evans

the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle (secretory phase of the uterine cycle) when females are most receptive to embryo implantation. During the follicular phase of menstrual/oestrous cycles, final maturation of a dominant ovarian follicle occurs. A