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Xianjie Wen and Yisheng Yang

. Interestingly, all patients present with neonatal diabetes, but with variable insulin sensitivity that is not associated with genotypes. For example, the patients with homozygous exons 1–2 deletion in GLIS3 may present with insulin resistance or high insulin

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Young Ho Suh, Younyoung Kim, Jeong Hyun Bang, Kyoung Suk Choi, June Woo Lee, Won-Ho Kim, Tae Jeong Oh, Sungwhan An, and Myeong Ho Jung

( Lindgren et al. 2001 ). All together, upregulation of annexin 1 in pre-diabetic skeletal muscle and liver tissue may induce insulin resistance and contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, expression of the regulator of G

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Amanda M Ackermann and Maureen Gannon

pancreatic endocrine cell types and die postnatally due to severe diabetes ( Gradwohl et al. 2000 ). Additionally, lineage tracing analysis reveals that all endocrine cells arise from Ngn3 + cells ( Gu et al. 2002 ). Ngn3 induces expression of essential β

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Francesco Maria Egro

defences of a child's body against diabetes. The inverse correlation described initially by Borch-Johnsen et al . (1984) might after all be a plausible hypothesis. Further evidence that strengthens the argument is the lack of certain human milk

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Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Neville H McClenaghan, and Peter R Flatt

Introduction In type 1 diabetes, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL1β), interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), released by autoimmune cells, are important mediators of pancreatic β-cell death ( Cnop et al . 2005

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Horng-Yih Ou, Hung-Tsung Wu, Feng-Hwa Lu, Yu-Chu Su, Hao-Chang Hung, Jin-Shang Wu, Yi-Ching Yang, Chao-Liang Wu, and Chih-Jen Chang

diabetes and insulin resistance ( Lewis & Mohanty 2010 ). Although hepatic steatosis is thought to be benign, it is now clear that steatosis can evolve into more severe liver damage including steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular

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Daniela Nasteska and David J Hodson

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disorder which occurs when genetically susceptible individuals are exposed to a permissive environment. It currently affects ~10% of the adult population ( Ezzati & World

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Louise K Metcalfe, Greg C Smith, and Nigel Turner

Insulin resistance and lipid metabolism Obesity and diabetes are metabolic conditions of increasingly widespread significance to modern populations. The global scale and gravity of their impacts on general health, life expectancy and quality

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Hui Juan Zhu, Hui Pan, Xu Zhe Zhang, Nai Shi Li, Lin Jie Wang, Hong Bo Yang, and Feng Ying Gong

particular, the balance between cell acquisition and cell loss ( Fruhbeck 2008 ). The proliferation of preadipocytes and their differentiation into mature adipocytes, combined with the apoptosis of preadipocytes, all contribute to the development of obesity

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Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao, Ming Li, Wenhui Li, Miao Yu, Huabing Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Lili Mao, and Hongding Xiang

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a metabolic disorder with different etiologies characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion and/or action. In 2000, 171 million cases of DM worldwide were