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Meghan S Perkins, Renate Louw-du Toit and Donita Africander

severe side effects including coronary heart disease, stroke and increased invasive breast cancer risk ( Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators 2002 , Million Women Study Collaborators 2003 , Krieger et al. 2005 , Vickers et

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Tram B Doan, J Dinny Graham and Christine L Clarke

Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women worldwide ( Ferlay et al. 2015 ). Over the past decades, substantial progress toward treatment of primary estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer has been made

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Evan R Simpson and Kristy A Brown

one mechanism whereby they increase the risk of breast cancer, especially in women who are obese. Dysregulated metabolism is also a driver of obesity-related aromatase expression in the breast, but this topic is beyond the scope of this article

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Ylenia Perone and Luca Magnani

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and, despite significant progress in detection and treatments, incidence has been steadily increasing in the last 40 years ( Torre et al. 2015 ). Over the past decades, it has become clear

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Shu-Ching M Wang, Dennis H Dowhan and George E O Muscat

Introduction The frequency of breast cancer is escalating with improved life expectancy and the increased adoption of western lifestyles ( Jemal et al. 2011 , Ferlay et al. 2015 , Torre et al. 2015 ). Breast cancer is one of the most

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Hong Zhao, Ling Zhou, Anna Junjie Shangguan and Serdar E Bulun

development and further growth of a number of benign and malignant hormone-dependent disorders, including breast and endometrial cancers ( Bulun et al. 2005 , Cavalieri et al. 2006 , Kim et al. 2013 , Santen et al. 2015 ). Breast cancer is the

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Carrie S Shemanko

Introduction The complexity of prolactin (PRL) signaling and function in breast cancer biology is apparent, with multiple reports covering a spectrum of observations that range from a protective nature to the induction of lytic bone cells in

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Caroline H Diep, Andrea R Daniel, Laura J Mauro, Todd P Knutson and Carol A Lange

Introduction Progesterone and progesterone receptors (PRs) are increasingly gaining attention for their emerging role as critical regulators of breast and gynecological cancers. With this newfound spotlight on PR action, there is an urgent need to

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F M Fioretti, A Sita-Lumsden, C L Bevan and G N Brooke

Breast cancer Breast cancers (BCs) account for one in three newly diagnosed cases of cancer in women and led to 11 600 deaths in 2010 in the UK alone ( CRUK 2014 ). Incidence rates increased by 90% between 1971 and 2010, with the largest increase in

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Marie Plourde, Caroline Manhes, Gilles Leblanc, Francine Durocher, Martine Dumont, Olga Sinilnikova, INHERIT BRCAs and Jacques Simard

Introduction Most of the familial aggregation in breast cancer results predominantly from inherited susceptibility ( Lichtenstein et al . 2000 , Peto & Mack 2000 ). Germline mutations in high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes such as breast