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Chunyu Wang, Li Tian, Kun Zhang, Yaxi Chen, Xiang Chen, Ying Xie, Qian Zhao and Xijie Yu

reduces bone mineral density (BMD) in mice ( Halade et al . 2010 ). Obesity affects bone metabolism through several potential mechanisms. It is well known that both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from the same progenitor cells: bone marrow

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Patricia K Russell, Michele V Clarke, Jarrod P Skinner, Tammy P S Pang, Jeffrey D Zajac and Rachel A Davey

microarray analysis of 374 genes to be over-represented in bones of mOBL-ARKOs at 12 weeks of age (≥1.5-fold) Name P value Molecular and cellular functions  Carbohydrate metabolism 1.3×10 −7 to 1.3×10 −2  Cellular development 3.3×10 −6 to 1.3×10 −2

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Yasmine Hachemi, Anna E Rapp, Ann-Kristin Picke, Gilbert Weidinger, Anita Ignatius and Jan Tuckermann

detail on bone metabolism in vivo . For the GR modulator AL-438 selected on the base of differential co-regulator recruitment, a clear lower suppression of bone formation rate was described, thus sparing GC effects on bone ( Coghlan et al . 2003

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Xin-wei Chen, Ye-hong Li, Meng-jun Zhang, Zhou Chen, Dian-shan Ke, Ying Xue and Jian-ming Hou

physiologically pleiotropic properties, such as antioxidant ( Kruzel et al. 2002 ) anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects, as well as the regulation of bone metabolism. Indeed, Bharadwaj et al . found that following an oral supplementation of LF, bone

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Charit Taneja, Sakshi Gera, Se-Min Kim, Jameel Iqbal, Tony Yuen and Mone Zaidi

:// ) 21175300 Devleta B Adem B Senada S 2004 Hypergonadotropic amenorrhea and bone density: new approach to an old problem . Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 360 – 364 . (

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M Rodríguez-Sanz, N García-Giralt, D Prieto-Alhambra, S Servitja, S Balcells, R Pecorelli, A Díez-Pérez, D Grinberg, I Tusquets and X Nogués

that estrogen and vitamin D endocrine systems play an important role in bone metabolism ( Felson et al . 1993 , Cranney et al . 2007 ). Depletion of any of these hormones leads to a bone mass reduction, which in some cases is very severe ( Eriksen

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Siyi Zhu, Hongchen He, Chengfei Gao, Guojing Luo, Ying Xie, Haiming Wang, Li Tian, Xiang Chen, Xijie Yu and Chengqi He

Introduction Sex steroids play a regulatory role in bone metabolism. After menopause, declining estrogen levels combined with a parallel increase in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels disrupt the orchestrated balance between bone

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Petrine Wellendorph, Lars Dan Johansen, Anders A Jensen, Emilio Casanova, Martin Gassmann, Pierre Deprez, Philippe Clément-Lacroix, Bernhard Bettler and Hans Bräuner-Osborne

acid sensing by the extracellular Ca 2+ -sensing receptor . PNAS 97 4814 – 4819 . Conigrave AD Brown EM Rizzoli R 2008 Dietary protein and bone health: roles of amino acid-sensing receptors in the control of calcium metabolism and bone

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Shoshana Yakar, Haim Werner and Clifford J Rosen

axis The somatotropic axis, (GH/IGF axis) regulates body and bone mass, body adiposity, as well as carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. This axis consists of hormonal circuits that regulate somatic growth. These include the hypothalamic growth hormone

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Yingyu Feng, Lei Su, Xing Zhong, Wei Guohong, Haipeng Xiao, Yanbing Li and Lingling Xiu

osteoporosis ( Kurra & Siris 2011 ). In addition, patients with both diabetes and osteoporosis are increasingly common in an aging society ( Viegas et al. 2011 ). The effects of antidiabetic agents on bone metabolism have thus received increased attention