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P Bargi-Souza, F Goulart-Silva, and M T Nunes

gene transcription ( Shupnik 2000 , Yen 2001 , Cheng et al . 2010 ). In the anterior pituitary gland, THs downregulate the expression of genes that encode CGA (glycoprotein hormones alpha chain) and TSHB subunits of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH

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Jennifer Miller-Gallacher, Paul Sanders, Stuart Young, Andrew Sullivan, Stuart Baker, Samuel C Reddington, Matthew Clue, Katarzyna Kabelis, Jill Clark, Jane Wilmot, Daniel Thomas, Monika Chlebowska, Francesca Cole, Emily Pearson, Emma Roberts, Matthew Holly, Michele Evans, Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Michael Powell, Jane Sanders, Jadwiga Furmaniak, and Bernard Rees Smith

Introduction The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is involved in the control of thyroid function and is a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases ( Rees Smith et al. 1988 , 2007 , McKenzie & Zakarija 1992

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R Núñez Miguel, J Sanders, D Y Chirgadze, J Furmaniak, and B Rees Smith

of receptor mediated signal transduction. Here, we report a detailed analysis of interactions involving an autoantibody that activates the TSH receptor (TSHR) in Graves' disease ( Sanders et al . 2003 , 2007 a , Rees Smith et al . 2007 ) and a

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Limin Tian, Luyan Zhang, Jing Liu, Tiankang Guo, Cuixia Gao, and Jing Ni

also been related with AS ( Valentina et al . 2011 ). TH is maintained at normal levels in patients with SCH, whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is increased. It remains unclear whether elevated serum TSH can promote endothelial dysfunction and

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Matei Bolborea, Gisela Helfer, Francis J P Ebling, and Perry Barrett

-dependent signalling mechanism ( de Vries et al . 2014 , Wittmann et al . 2014 ), and long-day photoperiods, which are caused by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of pars tuberalis origin ( Hanon et al . 2008 , Nakao et al . 2008 , Ono et al . 2008 , Helfer

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R Núñez Miguel, J Sanders, D Y Chirgadze, T L Blundell, J Furmaniak, and B Rees Smith

-stimulating hormone, TSH). There are, however, only three high affinity GPH receptors as LH and CG bind the LH receptor (LHR). GPHs control several major physiological processes, with TSH regulating metabolism through the production of thyroid hormones and the

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Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Jane Sanders, Paul Sanders, Stuart Young, Jill Clark, Katarzyna Kabelis, Jane Wilmot, Michele Evans, Emma Roberts, Xiaoling Hu, Jadwiga Furmaniak, and Bernard Rees Smith

Introduction K1–18 is a TSH receptor (TSHR) human monoclonal autoantibody (MAb; IgG1/kappa) with the ability to stimulate cAMP production in TSHR-transfected CHO cells and to inhibit TSH binding to the receptor at nanogram per millilitre

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Christer M Bäck, Stefanie Stohr, Eva A M Schäfer, Heike Biebermann, Ingrid Boekhoff, Andreas Breit, Thomas Gudermann, and Thomas R H Büch

functional integrity of the thyroid gland is the hypophyseal glycoprotein hormone TSH, which controls the growth and survival of thyroid cells as well as the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (for review, see Vassart & Dumont (1992) and De Felice

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Eva D'Amico, Stéphanie Gayral, Claude Massart, Jacqueline Van Sande, Jeremy F Reiter, Jacques E Dumont, Bernard Robaye, and Stéphane Schurmans

. In order to assure the synthesis of tri-iodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) thyroid hormones, the TSH receptor and the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) must reach the basolateral surface, while thyroperoxidase and the dual oxidases must be

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Paul Sanders, Stuart Young, Jane Sanders, Katarzyna Kabelis, Stuart Baker, Andrew Sullivan, Michele Evans, Jill Clark, Jane Wilmot, Xiaoling Hu, Emma Roberts, Michael Powell, Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Jadwiga Furmaniak, and Bernard Rees Smith

Introduction The TSH receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid disease, and TSHR autoantibodies with thyroid-stimulating (agonist) activity are responsible for the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease ( Rees Smith et al . 1988