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Petter Vikman, Joao Fadista, and Nikolay Oskolkov

Introduction The transcriptome is defined as all the RNAs in a cell at a given time and researchers have for a long time been interested in its composition. It has been reported that as many as 90% of eukaryotic genes can undergo alternative

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Marcel E Dinger, Timothy R Mercer, and John S Mattick

Introduction The emergence of non-protein-coding RNA (ncRNA) as an important regulatory molecule within the cell ( Mattick & Makunin 2006 , Prasanth & Spector 2007 ) forces a reconsideration of the role of RNA in a number of cellular processes

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Suzy S J Hur, Jennifer E Cropley, and Catherine M Suter

, histones and their modifications and the proteins that are recruited by histone modifications. The epigenome also comprises soluble factors, such as regulatory RNAs ( Mercer & Mattick 2013 ) that can determine or influence the action of other epigenetic

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Ayse Elif Erson-Bensan

). The CFIm complex binds to U-rich/UGUA upstream elements (USEs) and also mediates the cleavage reaction. Finally, the recruited CFIIm complex aids termination of the RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription and PAPs catalyze the addition of untemplated

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I Bantounas, L A Phylactou, and J B Uney

RNAs for degradation. Although these methods worked satisfactorily in some simple experimental models, they have generally not delivered effective gene silencing in complex mammalian systems. However, in the past 2 years, extraordinary developments in

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Yunli Zhou, Xun Zhang, and Anne Klibanski

their gene products – proteins. However, recent studies reveal that another class of genes, whose products are long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with sizes >200 nt, may also play an important role in tumor suppression ( Gibb et al . 2011 ). One such lncRNA

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Silvia Ottaviani, Alexander de Giorgio, Victoria Harding, Justin Stebbing, and Leandro Castellano

Introduction Advances in high-throughput sequencing techniques have revealed eukaryotic genomes to be extensively transcribed, generating an array of novel non-protein-coding RNA classes that greatly outnumber protein-coding mRNAs ( Carninci et al

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Maria Rossing

comprises noncoding RNAs, that in addition to the well-known noncoding RNAs of ribosomal RNAs and miRNAs, also comprise long-noncoding RNAs (>200 nucleotides). Future studies are likely to clarify the transforming potential of long noncoding RNAs as well as

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Bo Li, Yue Zhou, Jing Chen, Tingting Wang, Zhijuan Li, Yili Fu, Aixia Zhai, and Changlong Bi

-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be involved in transcriptional regulation in multiple diseases ( Hon et al. 2017 ). For instance, lncRNAs are abnormally expressed in early diabetic retinopathy and are associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic

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Boris Thurisch, Shermi Y Liang, Nanette Sarioglu, Lutz Schomburg, Jörg Bungert, and Christof Dame

interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against Gata4 in order to achieve dose- and/or time-dependent suppression of Gata4 expression. In vivo RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been established, but the general experience with such mouse models is still