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Melanie Sapochnik, Mariana Fuertes, and Eduardo Arzt

Introduction Cytokines perform essential roles during infection, cancer and inflammation where they regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival or death ( Dranoff 2004 , Dinarello 2007 ). In particular, interleukin 6 (IL-6

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Longfei Xiao, Zihui Wang, Ning Lu, Yanan He, Limin Qiao, Xihui Sheng, Xiaolong Qi, Kai Xing, Yong Guo, Di Chang, Xiangguo Wang, Junjin Zhao, Xiaobin Deng, Hemin Ni, and Jian Kang

) and goat ( Zhang et al. 2019 ) GCs and oocytes in ovaries. High steroidogenic and metabolic demands characterize developing follicles, and an inflammatory-like process may occur as a result ( Duffy et al. 2019 ). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), an

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Yue Wang, Xiu Long Niu, Xiao Qin Guo, Jing Yang, Ling Li, Ye Qu, Cun Xiu Hu, Li Qun Mao, and Dan Wang

endometrial cancer cells. Interleukin 6 (IL6), a known mediator of immunological and inflammatory events, was elevated in serum and peritoneal fluid of patients with OVCA; high levels of IL6 in body fluids were associated with poor prognosis and survival

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Siyi Zhu, Hongchen He, Chengfei Gao, Guojing Luo, Ying Xie, Haiming Wang, Li Tian, Xiang Chen, Xijie Yu, and Chengqi He

& Smolen 2012 ). The stimulatory effect of OVX on BM-HSCs/MSCs is relevant to an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6) and IL1, which may enhance the activity of osteoclasts and suppress bone

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RE Toribio, CW Kohn, CC Capen, and TJ Rosol

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the chief cells of the parathyroid gland in response to changes in ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations. In this study, we measured PTH secretion, and PTH mRNA and calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mRNA expression by equine parathyroid chief cells in vitro. We also evaluated the effects of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on PTH secretion, and PTH and CaR mRNA expression. The relationship between PTH and Ca(2+) was inversely related. PTH secretion decreased from 100% (day 0) to 13% (day 30). PTH mRNA expression declined from 100% (day 0) to 25% (day 30). CaR mRNA decreased from 100% (day 0) to 16% (day 30). Chief cells exposed to high (2.0 mM) Ca(2+) concentrations had a lower PTH mRNA expression compared with low Ca(2+) concentrations. Ca(2+) concentrations had no effect on CaR mRNA expression. The inhibitory effect of high Ca(2+) concentrations on PTH secretion also declined over time. After day 10, there was no significant difference in PTH secretion between low and high Ca(2+ )concentrations. IL-1beta decreased both PTH secretion (75%) and PTH mRNA expression (73%), and resulted in a significant overexpression of CaR mRNA (up to 142%). The effects of IL-1beta were blocked by an IL-1 receptor antagonist. IL-1beta decreased the Ca(2+) set-point from 1.4 mM to 1.2 mM. IL-6 decreased PTH secretion (74%), but had no effect on PTH and CaR mRNA expression. TNF-alpha had no effect on PTH secretion, and PTH and CaR mRNA expression. In summary, the decreased responsiveness of parathyroid cells to Ca(2+) from 0 to 30 days can be explained, in part, by the reduced CaR expression. IL-1beta and IL-6 but not TNF-alpha affected parathyroid function in vitro and may be important in influencing PTH secretion in the septic horse.

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Chunyu Wang, Li Tian, Kun Zhang, Yaxi Chen, Xiang Chen, Ying Xie, Qian Zhao, and Xijie Yu

cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL6) and IL1, might enhance osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and skeleton metabolism are still

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Guoqing Lei, Linxi Chen, Miao Peng, Bolin Zeng, Qiaoxi Yang, Hening Zhai, and Geyang Xu

. Intracerebroventricular (icv) microinjections For the animal treatment, IL-27 or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was dissolved in saline on the day of treatment and microinjected into third ventricle 1 h before the onset of the dark phase. After 12-h fasting, lean C57BL/6J mice

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Dong-Jae Jun, Kyung-Yoon Na, Wanil Kim, Dongoh Kwak, Eun-Jeong Kwon, Jong Hyuk Yoon, Kyungmoo Yea, Hyeongji Lee, Jaeyoon Kim, Pann-Gill Suh, Sung Ho Ryu, and Kyong-Tai Kim

Introduction Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the regulation of the immune response, acute-phase reaction, nervous and endocrine system function, bone metabolism, hematopoiesis, insulin resistance, and various human diseases

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H Tokuda, K Kato, H Natsume, A Kondo, G Kuroyanagi, R Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Y Ito, T Otsuka, and O Kozawa

Introduction Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic and proinflammatory cytokine that has crucial effects on a wide range of cell functions such as promoting B-cell differentiation, T-cell activation, and inducing acute-phase proteins ( Akira et al

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Man Huang, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Nikoletta Papadopoulou, Taxiarchis Kourelis, Jill Donelan, Akrivi Manola, and Theoharis C Theoharides

. 1997 , Theoharides & Cochrane 2004 ) and myocardial ischemia (MI; Jiang et al . 1996 , Krantz et al . 2000 ). Acute stress elevates plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in rodents ( Ando et al . 1998 , Nukina et al . 2001 ) and such levels are