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K Alexander Iwen, Rebecca Oelkrug, and Georg Brabant

Introduction Thyroid hormones (THs) are key in regulating energy homeostasis in both humans and rodents. Maintaining core body temperature is critical for homeothermic species and thermoregulation requires fine-tuned energy partitioning. Here

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Jo E Lewis, John M Brameld, Phil Hill, Dana Wilson, Perry Barrett, Francis J P Ebling, and Preeti H Jethwa

tanycytes ( Ross et al . 2004 , Shearer et al . 2010 ). The major question now arises as to how seasonal changes in thyroid hormone and RA signaling from tanycytes to hypothalamic neurons ultimately regulate appetite and energy expenditure. One of the

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Kei Tamura, Shutaro Takayama, Takako Ishii, Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Nobuhiko Takamatsu, and Michihiko Ito

intestines are reconstructed to form the adult organs ( Ishizuya-Oka 2011 , Shi et al . 2011 ). All these diverse changes are believed to be controlled by triiodothyronine (T 3 ), an active form of thyroid hormone (TH) ( Furlow & Neff 2006 ). In the African

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Julika Lietzow, Janine Golchert, Georg Homuth, Uwe Völker, Wenke Jonas, and Josef Köhrle

Introduction Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate multiple metabolic processes and play an essential role in normal growth, development, and energy homeostasis. Moreover, they are powerful agents in counteracting hyperlipidemia and reducing body

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Xin Liu, Nan Zheng, Ya-Nan Shi, Jihong Yuan, and Lanying Li

factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietins, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and so on ( di Blasio et al . 2010 ). Recently, effects of thyroid hormones, including l -thyroxine (T 4 ), and 3,5,3′-triiodo- l -thyronine

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Amy Warner and Jens Mittag

Introduction Thyroid hormone has long been known for its profound effects on the metabolic rate and cardiovascular function ( Magnus-Levy 1895 , Klein & Ojamaa 2001 ). This becomes most evident in hyperthyroidism, which is accompanied by an

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Sogol Gachkar, Sebastian Nock, Cathleen Geissler, Rebecca Oelkrug, Kornelia Johann, Julia Resch, Awahan Rahman, Anders Arner, Henriette Kirchner, and Jens Mittag

Introduction Thyroid hormone (TH) is an important regulator of cardiovascular functions. This becomes evident in patients with hyperthyroidism presenting with tachycardia and cardiac hypertrophy, while bradycardia is a characteristic of

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Maria Nygård, Nathalie Becker, Barbara Demeneix, Katarina Pettersson, and Maria Bondesson

Introduction Thyroid hormone (3,5,3-tri-iodothyronine; T3) is an essential regulator of brain development. Supporting this notion, congenital hypothyroidism results in severe and irreversible mental retardation. Thyroid hormones in

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Anne Wulf, Marianne G Wetzel, Maxim Kebenko, Meike Kröger, Angelika Harneit, Jennifer Merz, and Joachim M Weitzel

Introduction Thyroid hormone (3,3′,5-tri-iodothyronine; T 3 ) is an essential regulator of brain development, cell differentiation, and metabolic balance ( Yen 2001 ). Thyroid hormone regulates gene expression via binding to thyroid hormone

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Kwang-Huei Lin, Chia-yu Chen, Shen-Liang Chen, Chun-Che Yen, Ya-Hui Huang, Chung-hsuan Shih, Jiann-Jong Shen, Rong-Chi Yang, and Chia-Siu Wang

thyroid hormones (THs) positively regulate plasma levels of FN by unknown mechanisms. In addition, Baumgartner-Parzer et al. (1997) also showed that hyperthyroidism is associated with elevated plasma levels of FN. Thus, we focused our study on the