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Momoe Itsumi, Masaki Shiota, Akira Yokomizo, Ario Takeuchi, Eiji Kashiwagi, Takashi Dejima, Junichi Inokuchi, Katsunori Tatsugami, Takeshi Uchiumi, and Seiji Naito

Introduction Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in males in developed countries. For growth and survival, prostate cancer cells characteristically require androgens, which

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Momoe Itsumi, Masaki Shiota, Akira Yokomizo, Eiji Kashiwagi, Ario Takeuchi, Katsunori Tatsugami, Junichi Inokuchi, YooHyun Song, Takeshi Uchiumi, and Seiji Naito

Introduction Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death of men in developed countries ( Siegel et al . 2012 ). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has improved early detection

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Silvia Ottaviani, Greg N Brooke, Ciara O'Hanlon-Brown, Jonathan Waxman, Simak Ali, and Laki Buluwela

Introduction Androgens play a central role in the biology of normal prostate development and prostate cancer progression ( Shen & Abate-Shen 2010 ). These hormones mediate their effects through the action of the androgen receptor (AR), a member of

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Soojin Kim, Daksh Thaper, Samir Bidnur, Paul Toren, Shusuke Akamatsu, Jennifer L Bishop, Colin Colins, Sepideh Vahid, and Amina Zoubeidi

Introduction Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed and the third leading cause of cancer mortality among Canadian men ( CCSsACoC 2017 ). Initially, most cases of prostate adenocarcinoma are hormone driven and respond to androgen

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Inge Seim, Amy A Lubik, Melanie L Lehman, Nadine Tomlinson, Eliza J Whiteside, Adrian C Herington, Colleen C Nelson, and Lisa K Chopin

). Ghrelin may play a role in prostate cancer progression, and we have previously demonstrated that ghrelin mRNA and protein is expressed in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues and that ghrelin stimulates cell proliferation in prostate cancer cell lines

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Chen-Lin Hsieh, Changmeng Cai, Ahmed Giwa, Aaronica Bivins, Shao-Yong Chen, Dina Sabry, Kumara Govardhan, and Lirim Shemshedini

Introduction Prostate cancer is an epithelial-derived cancer ( Cussenot et al . 1994 ) that involves the action of androgens and androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor ( Chang et al . 1988 ). This liganded AR is essential

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Irene I Lee, Nane C Kuznik, Jaice T Rottenberg, Myles Brown, and Andrew C B Cato

experimentally tested. BAG1L and prostate cancer The regulation of AR activity by BAG1L and the driver role of the AR in prostate cancer progression has generated an interest in the action of BAG1L in prostate cancer. A link between BAG1L and prostate

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Matias Knuuttila, Esa Hämäläinen, and Matti Poutanen

, supporting the hypothesis that these steroids are originating from adrenal precursors ( Turcu et al. 2016 ). Interestingly, remarkable levels of 11KT and 11KDHT were also detected in prostate tissue and plasma of prostate cancer (PCa) patients by LC

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Masaki Shiota, Akira Yokomizo, and Seiji Naito

Introduction The androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway is known to play a critical role in prostate tumorigenesis and prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) either reduces the production of androgens by

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Nima Sharifi, Robert J Lechleider, and William L Farrar

al . 1999 ) and SMAD4 deletions are found in pancreatic tumors ( Hahn et al . 1996 ). In prostate cancer, loss of TGFβRI or TGFβRII expression is found in about 30% of cases ( Kim et al . 1996 , Guo et al . 1997 ), but the mechanism of TGF