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Lin Xiao, Suzana Kovac, Mike Chang, Arthur Shulkes, Graham S Baldwin, and Oneel Patel

how the growth factors are upregulated in tumors. In the case of the gastrin promoter, various transcription factors including Sp1 ( Chupreta et al . 2000 ), p73 ( Tomkova et al . 2006 ), β-catenin/TCF4 ( Chakladar et al . 2005 ), and AP1 are

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Anke Schennink, Josephine F Trott, Bradley A Freking, and Russell C Hovey

, 2005 ) and mice ( Ormandy et al . 1998 , Tabata et al . 2012 ). Transcription from these alternative first exons is controlled by upstream promoters that recruit specific cis -acting factors. In turn, activation of these promoters could lead to

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Jan Wilde, Maria Erdmann, Michael Mertens, Gabriele Eiselt, and Martin Schmidt

extragonadal tissues. Tissue-specific expression depends on the utilization of tissue-specific sets of promoters, which give rise to aromatase transcripts with unique 5′-ends encoded by specific untranslated first exons. As all these first exons are spliced to

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Andres J Casal, Victoria J P Sinclair, Alessandro M Capponi, Jérôme Nicod, Uyen Huynh-Do, and Paolo Ferrari

, Paillard et al. 1999 , Takeda et al. 1999 , Lim et al. 2002 , Nicod et al. 2003 ). Two variants, a cytosine/thymidine (C/T) substitution in the 5′-promoter region, which disrupts a putative binding site for steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), and a

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Eugenia Mata-Greenwood, P Naomi Jackson, William J Pearce, and Lubo Zhang

endothelial glucocorticoid sensitivity have not been well defined, and warrant further exploration. GR mRNA expression is regulated by complex mechanisms that include transcriptional and epigenetic modification of GR promoters ( Presul et al . 2007

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Wataru Nishimura, Naoko Ishibashi, Koki Eto, Nobuaki Funahashi, Haruhide Udagawa, Harukata Miki, Souichi Oe, Yasuko Noda, and Kazuki Yasuda

dedifferentiation ( Talchai et al . 2012 , Gao et al . 2014 , Nishimura et al . 2015 ). We also reported that the promoter activity of MafB is increased in β-cells of diabetes model mice such as db/db mice and mice that have received low-dose streptozotocin

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Anne-Marie O’Carroll, Stephen J Lolait, and Gillian M Howell

and then subjected to analysis on an 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by autoradiography. DNA constructs To test promoter activity, a series of constructs was generated by PCR from the 5′ end of the

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Chan Soo Shin, Min Jae Jeon, Jae-Yeon Yang, Sun-Ju Her, Dohee Kim, Sang Wan Kim, and Seong Yeon Kim

et al. 1997 ). In addition, the enhanced expression of both C/EBPβ and -δ potentiated IGF-I promoter activity in response to prostaglandin E 2 ( McCarthy et al. 2000 a ). Expression of interleukin-6 is also regulated by C/EBPβ by cross

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Daniil V Popov, Evgeny A Lysenko, Tatiana F Vepkhvadze, Nadia S Kurochkina, Pavel A Maknovskii, and Olga L Vinogradova

et al . 2015 ). Mouse and human skeletal muscle expresses several PGC-1 α ( PPARGC1A ) gene isoforms originating from the canonical ( PGC-1α-a mRNA) and alternative ( PGC-1α-b and PGC-1α-c mRNA) promoters ( Miura et al . 2008 , Yoshioka et al

Open access

Irina G Bogdarina, Peter J King, and Adrian J L Clark

) . The selective advantage of having functionally the same receptor derived from distinct genes at these sites is not clear, but one probable benefit is the opportunity for each subtype to be driven and regulated by different promoters. The more widely