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Maria Cernea, Wei Tang, Haiyan Guan, and Kaiping Yang

adipogenesis, a process that involves three key steps: proliferation, commitment and terminal differentiation ( Moreno-Navarrete & Fernandez-Real 2012 ). Adipocyte number is established during early life by various environmental factors ( Spalding et al . 2008

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Changgui Shi, Ping Huang, Hui Kang, Bo Hu, Jin Qi, Min Jiang, Hanbing Zhou, Lei Guo, and Lianfu Deng

. 2013 ). Results of previous studies have indicated that the induction of osteoblast apoptosis and the inhibition of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation eventually lead to a reduction in bone formation ( Weinstein et al . 1998 , Pereira et al

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Ruiqi Ma, Lu Gan, Hui Ren, Andrew Harrison, and Jiang Qian

their responses to antioxidants. Significant differences between the TAO and control OFs have been identified in aspects of proliferation, cytokine production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and so forth ( Byun et al. 2016 , Choi et al

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Hui Juan Zhu, Hui Pan, Xu Zhe Zhang, Nai Shi Li, Lin Jie Wang, Hong Bo Yang, and Feng Ying Gong

particular, the balance between cell acquisition and cell loss ( Fruhbeck 2008 ). The proliferation of preadipocytes and their differentiation into mature adipocytes, combined with the apoptosis of preadipocytes, all contribute to the development of obesity

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Ting Yan, Wangwang Qiu, Jianlu Song, Youben Fan, and Zhili Yang

showed that ARHGAP36 promoted the proliferation and migration of PTC cells through related signaling pathways. These results suggest that ARHGAP36 can be used as a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target molecule for recurrence and

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Trinidad Raices, María Luisa Varela, Casandra Margarita Monzón, María Florencia Correa Torrado, Romina María Pagotto, Marcos Besio Moreno, Carolina Mondillo, Omar Pedro Pignataro, and Elba Nora Pereyra

proliferation-regulating functions in LC and other steroidogenic populations ( Del Punta et al. 1996 , Mondillo et al. 2005 , Li et al. 2017 , Zhao et al. 2017 and others). Concertedly, these factors fine-tune LC proficiency in testosterone

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Giulia Cantini, Martina Trabucco, Alessandra Di Franco, Edoardo Mannucci, and Michaela Luconi

abdominal fat depots and characterized by our group ( Baglioni et al. 2009 , 2012 ), liraglutide and GLP-1 have recently been demonstrated to interfere with adipocyte proliferation and differentiation ( Cantini et al. 2015 , 2017 ), as further

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Hong-Wei Chang, Chao-Yuan Huang, Shao-Yu Yang, Vin-Cent Wu, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Yung-Ming Chen, Bor-Shen Hsieh, and Kwan-Dun Wu

-producing adenoma (APA). The pathogenesis of both diseases involves the over-proliferation of adrenal cortical cells. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Although angiotensin II (AII) stimulates aldosterone production through the angiotensin type 1

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Chanchal Gupta and Kulbhushan Tikoo

promotion of breast carcinogenesis ( Lai et al . 2001 ). As cancer cells use glucose as the source of energy for their proliferation, hyperglycemia provides a favorable environment for the growth and survival of breast cancer cells ( Beckner et al . 1990

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K Lindberg, S G Rønn, D Tornehave, H Richter, J A Hansen, J Rømer, M Jackerott, and N Billestrup

shown to be important growth factors for the β-cell as they stimulate insulin synthesis as well as β-cell proliferation ( Nielsen 1982 , 1985 , Nielsen et al. 1992 , Brelje et al. 1993 ). Specific receptors for both PRL and GH are present on β