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Rhonda D Kineman, Mercedes del Rio-Moreno and André Sarmento-Cabral

promote structural growth, while the primary action of insulin is to regulate nutrient utilization in response to a meal. Despite these primary actions, IGF1 and insulin demonstrate important crossover effects on growth and metabolism ( Messina 2010

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Elisa Manieri and Guadalupe Sabio

Introduction The totality of biochemical reactions that a cell requires to grow, survive and respond to external stimuli is known as metabolism. These processes are classified into two interdependent groups. Catabolism is the set of reactions that

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Hayden Weng Siong Tan, Arthur Yi Loong Sim, Su Ling Huang, Ying Leng and Yun Chau Long

repression of gene expression ( De Ruijter et al . 2003 ). Recent studies suggest that HDACs play a role in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Dietary supplementation of butyrate prevented diet-induced insulin resistance in mice, and this effect

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Rachel S Fletcher and Gareth G Lavery

NAD + as a redox cofactor and signalling molecule The vital role of NAD + in redox metabolism was first described in 1906 by Arthur Harden as being a required cofactor for alcohol fermentation ( Harden & Young 1906 ). It has since been well

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Lena Espelage, Hadi Al-Hasani and Alexandra Chadt

Skeletal muscle metabolism is crucial in controlling systemic metabolic flexibility and substrate utilization Metabolic flexibility represents the functional ability of an organism to accordingly adapt its energy substrate preference to

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Ke-Hung Tsui, Li-Chuan Chung, Shyi-Wu Wang, Tsui-Hsia Feng, Phei-Lang Chang and Horng-Heng Juang

lactate accumulation or lipid metabolism pathways or both, enhances fatty acid synthase ( FASN ) expression and provides metabolic advantages for the tumor cells ( Hu et al . 2011 ). Tumor cells engaged in glycolysis do not convert their pyruvate

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Guokun Yang, Chaobin Qin, Bin Wang, Jirong Jia, Xi Yuan, Caiyun Sun and Wensheng Li

regulate glucose as well as lipid metabolism of the liver and muscle ( Wong et al . 2009 , Seldin et al . 2014 ). As the crucial cytokine, it has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties and also protects against metabolic syndrome ( Kadowaki

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Oro Uchenunu, Michael Pollak, Ivan Topisirovic and Laura Hulea

order to sustain elevated protein synthesis required for neoplastic growth, malignant cells must adjust their energy metabolism. MTOR is a key regulator of translation ( Sonenberg & Hinnebusch 2009 ). AMP-activated protein kinase ( AMPK ) acts as an

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Viral Chikani and Ken K Y Ho

Introduction Skeletal muscles are specialised contractile tissues that control posture and physical activity while having an important role in energy metabolism. Their function is dependent on the composition and strength of fibre types that require

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Daniela Nasteska and David J Hodson

only respond to elevated glucose, avoiding the inappropriate and damaging release of insulin. Following transport into the cytosol, the sugar stimulates oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, leading to ATP generation in the mitochondria at the expense of