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Francesco Maria Egro

. 2004 a ), lactate dehydrogenase viruses ( Takei et al . 1992 ) and parasites such as Schistosoma ( Cooke et al . 1999 ). The underlying mechanisms are still unclear, but an attempt will be made to summarise the current evidence ( Fig. 1 ). Figure 1

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Russell A Prough, Barbara J Clark, and Carolyn M Klinge

to steroid hormone and nuclear receptors (NRs), activating various membrane receptors and inhibiting voltage-gated T-type Ca 2+ channels. This review summarizes the established mechanisms by which DHEA activates its biological effects in cells

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Carrie Y Y Cheng, Jessica Y S Chu, and Billy K C Chow

-diuretic functions and these findings add to a growing body of evidence indicating the involvement of Vp-independent mechanisms in regulating renal water reabsorption ( Bauman 1965 , Jeon et al . 2003 , Li et al . 2006 ). Secretin ( Waldum et al . 1980 , Chu

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Chunmei Wang and Yong Xu

. 2012 , Stubbins et al. 2012 , Yang et al. 2014 , Morselli et al. 2016 , Dorfman et al. 2017 ). However, the mechanisms for this sexual dimorphism remain elusive, and better understanding of this fundamental sex difference in energy

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Ulrich Schweizer and Clemens Steegborn

system, but their molecular mechanisms of catalysis and regulation are not fully understood despite many studies on these topics. The lack of molecular insight likely contributes to the paucity of small molecule modulators for deiodinases, which could be

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Zhen-Yu She and Wan-Xi Yang

Introduction How an individual's sex is determined and coordinated has been a long-standing question in embryology and developmental biology. In the animal kingdom, the genetic and molecular mechanisms involved in sex determination vary remarkably

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Te-Yueh Lin, Hong Guo, and Xiaoli Chen

adiponectin has the N-terminal signal peptide and can be secreted via the CPS, it can also be detected in exosomes ( Phoonsawat et al. 2014 , DeClercq et al. 2015 ). In general, a secreted protein can be secreted through multiple pathways/mechanisms

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Meghan S Perkins, Renate Louw-du Toit, and Donita Africander

receptors, coupled with the complexity of steroid receptor crosstalk, highlights the intricacies of the mechanisms through which hormones used in HT may increase breast cancer risk and promote breast cancer pathogenesis. In order to elucidate the involvement

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R Alhamdan, W Maalouf, B K Campbell, J H Hernandez-Medrano, and P Marsters

hypothesised that a similar hypoxia-mediated mechanism may be active in the GCs of large pre-antral and antral follicles. Thus a further aim of this present study was to gain a greater understanding of the role of hypoxia in NP signalling, utilising GCs grown

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Elin Swedenborg, Joëlle Rüegg, Sari Mäkelä, and Ingemar Pongratz

obesity and diabetes type 2. However, this association is still debated and the possible molecular mechanisms underlying endocrine disruption and disease development are far from understood. To date, most studies have focused on the effects that endocrine