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Lucia Kořínková, Martina Holubová, Barbora Neprašová, Lucie Hrubá, Veronika Pražienková, Michal Bencze, Martin Haluzík, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská, and Blanka Železná

Introduction Leptin has an appetite-regulating effect that occurs in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where it activates anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and inhibits orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and thus induces a

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Zhi Zhang, Fang Wang, Bing-jian Wang, Guang Chu, Qunan Cao, Bao-Gui Sun, and Qiu-Yan Dai

and hypertension. Leptin, a 16-kDa adipokine encoded by the Ob gene, has been examined for its role in influencing the hypothalamus and thus controlling appetite ( Zhang et al . 1994 ). However, exposure to high doses of leptin has been associated

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Ningping Gong, Elisabeth Jönsson, and Björn Thrandur Björnsson

Introduction Leptin (Lep) is a non-glycosylated 16 kDa peptide hormone, which is conserved through vertebrate evolution ( Friedman-Einat et al . 2014 , Londraville et al . 2014 ). It has been identified in many teleost species, including

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J Bian, X M Bai, Y L Zhao, L Zhang, and Z J Liu

factors ( Galgani & Ravussin 2008 ). The hyperleptinemia in obese patients and rodents supports that leptin resistance or insensitivity to the action of leptin is a common mechanism of obesity ( Fleisch et al . 2007 , Augustine & Grattan 2008 ). The

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Gilberto Paz-Filho, Claudio Alberto Mastronardi, Brian J Parker, Ainy Khan, Antonio Inserra, Klaus I Matthaei, Monika Ehrhart-Bornstein, Stefan Bornstein, Ma-Li Wong, and Julio Licinio

cases progress to NASH, and NASH and NAFLD may be genetically distinct entities ( Kawaguchi et al . 2012 ). The absence of leptin, the adipokine produced mainly by white adipose tissue (WAT), is implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH in cases of

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Maggie C Evans and Greg M Anderson

axis, we know from both animal and clinical studies that certain nutritional signals, such as leptin, insulin and ghrelin, exert a more critical influence over GNRH/LH pulsatility (and thus fertility) than others and that in at least some cases their

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Jaume Folch, Ignacio Pedrós, Iván Patraca, Francesc Sureda, Fèlix Junyent, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Ester Verdaguer, Mercè Pallàs, Carme Auladell, and Antoni Camins

candidates to study the effects on the brain, the largest bodies of work concentrate mainly around leptin (Lep) and insulin due to their modulation on hippocampal function (Plum et al . 2005, Signore et al . 2008 ). Likewise, there are other potential

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Patrizia Morera, Loredana Basiricò, Kenji Hosoda, and Umberto Bernabucci

temperature rather than indirect factors, such as the reduction of feed intake. Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, are metabolically relevant in coordinating energy homeostasis ( Ailhaud 2006 ). Leptin affects energy homeostasis by decreasing food intake

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Laura Marroquí, Alejandro Gonzalez, Patricia Ñeco, Ernesto Caballero-Garrido, Elaine Vieira, Cristina Ripoll, Angel Nadal, and Ivan Quesada

insulin demand ( Sachdeva & Stoffers 2009 ). Obesity involves an increasing accumulation of adipose tissue and enhanced release of adipokines. Among others, leptin has been revealed as an important regulator of pancreatic β-cell function at different

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N T Lam, S D Covey, J T Lewis, S Oosman, T Webber, E C Hsu, A T Cheung, and T J Kieffer

prevail causes insulin resistance and hyperglycemia which, if left untreated, may lead to diabetes mellitus. Leptin signaling is similarly regulated; signaling begins with phosphorylation and activation of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) ( Ghilardi & Skoda 1997