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Louise K Metcalfe, Greg C Smith and Nigel Turner

Insulin resistance and lipid metabolism Obesity and diabetes are metabolic conditions of increasingly widespread significance to modern populations. The global scale and gravity of their impacts on general health, life expectancy and quality

Open access

Jun Zhou, Qilong Wang, Ye Ding and Ming-Hui Zou

Introduction Insulin resistance, a hallmark of obesity and fundamental cause of type 2 diabetes, is characterized by a diminished ability of insulin to regulate glucose homeostasis in insulin-sensitive organs including liver, skeletal muscle, and

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Bo Zhou, Huixia Li, Jiali Liu, Lin Xu, Qinyue Guo, Hongzhi Sun and Shufang Wu

chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, as evidenced by up-regulation of TNFA, IL1B and IL6 ( Kawasaki et al . 2012 ). These observations raised the possibility that PGRN might be a promising new link among obesity, autophagy and insulin resistance

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Tae Woo Jung, Yoon Hee Chung, Hyoung-Chun Kim, A M Abd El-Aty and Ji Hoon Jeong

macrophages and T cells that infiltrate adipose tissue stimulate inflammation, which is thought to alter adipose tissue function, leading to metabolic disorders and systemic insulin resistance ( Olefsky & Glass 2010 , Sun et al . 2012 ). Various

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Lan Xu, Wenting Wang, Xinyue Zhang, Hanni Ke, Yingying Qin, Li You, Weiping Li, Gang Lu, Wai-Yee Chan, Peter C K Leung, Shidou Zhao and Zi-Jiang Chen

of Reproduction 85 62 – 69 . ( ) 10.1095/biolreprod.110.088815 21311036 Aguirre V Uchida T Yenush L Davis R White MF 2000 The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase promotes insulin resistance during

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Jian-Hua Chen, Maria Segni, Felicity Payne, Isabel Huang-Doran, Alison Sleigh, Claire Adams, UK10K Consortium, David B Savage, Stephen O'Rahilly, Robert K Semple and Inês Barroso

Introduction Insulin action and linear growth are intimately linked, with crosstalk between insulin action and growth hormone/IGF1 signalling at multiple levels in liver and other tissues. This is attested to by the insulin resistance reported in

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Yueting Dong, Zhiye Xu, Ziyi Zhang, Xueyao Yin, Xihua Lin, Hong Li and Fenping Zheng

metabolism ( Romacho et al . 2014 ). There is strong evidence showing that dysfunction of adipose tissue plays a critical role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus ( Abranches et al . 2015 , Jankovic et al . 2015 ). A classical

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Hisashi Masuyama and Yuji Hiramatsu

Introduction Normal human pregnancy is characterized by mild fasting hypoglycemia, postprandial hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia ( Cunningham et al . 2010 ). These responses are consistent with a pregnancy-induced state of insulin resistance

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Yanjun Liu, Yuichi Nakagawa, Ying Wang, Limei Liu, Hongwei Du, Wei Wang, Xiuhai Ren, Kabirullah Lutfy and Theodore C Friedman

Introduction Excess glucocorticoid (GC) production (Cushing's syndrome) induces obesity and insulin resistance via activation of intracellular GC receptor (GR; Rizza et al . 1982 , Friedman et al . 1993 ). The GR belongs to a cytoplasmic nuclear

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Penny Ahlstrom, Esther Rai, Suharto Chakma, Hee Ho Cho, Palanivel Rengasamy and Gary Sweeney

of circulating glucose in response to insulin, and it is therefore critical to fully understand the mechanisms leading to insulin resistance and how they can be alleviated ( Marette et al. 2014 ). A strong inverse correlation of circulating