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Pia Kiilerich, Gérard Triqueneaux, Nynne Meyn Christensen, Vincent Trayer, Xavier Terrien, Marc Lombès and Patrick Prunet

Pearce D 2003 Homodimerization of the glucocorticoid receptor is not essential for response element binding: activation of the phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene by dimerization-defective mutant . Molecular Endocrinology 17 2583 – 2592

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Shirlene X Ong, Keefe Chng, Michael J Meaney and Jan P Buschdorf

development. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression is dynamically regulated over perinatal development in a highly tissue-specific manner ( Kalinyak et al . 1989 , Bohn et al . 1994 ). It is critical to assess corticosteroid receptor levels to evaluate

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Hannah E Lapp, Andrew A Bartlett and Richard G Hunter

.3389/fnins.2016.00547 ) 27999527 Demonacos C Tsawdaroglou NC Djordjevic-Markovic R Papalopoulou M Galanopoulos V Papadogeorgaki S Sekeris CE 1993 Import of the glucocorticoid receptor into rat liver mitochondria in vivo and in vitro . Journal of

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Eugenia Mata-Greenwood, P Naomi Jackson, William J Pearce and Lubo Zhang

Introduction Glucocorticoids are therapeutic agents used for reducing inflammation via targeting the glucocorticoid receptor ( NR3C1, GR ) of immune cells ( Auphan et al . 1995 , Barnes 1998 ). However, glucocorticoids also target the GR

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Karin Ecker, Andreas Lorenz, Frank Wolf, Christian Ploner, Günther Böck, Tod Duncan, Stephan Geley and Arno Helmberg

the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which, in the absence of ligand, is bound to a large, dynamic multi-protein chaperone complex. This complex includes heat shock protein molecules Hsp90 and, temporarily, Hsp70 as well as an immunophilin component and

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Elisabeth Presul, Stefan Schmidt, Reinhard Kofler and Arno Helmberg

diversity may partially be due to tissue-specific expression from multiple promoters, resulting in multiple alternative untranslated first exons, of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The GR gene (NR3C1, OMIM+138040) contains a presently undetermined number

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Henk Russcher, Virgil A S H Dalm, Frank H de Jong, Albert O Brinkmann, Leo J Hofland, Steven W J Lamberts and Jan W Koper

Introduction Glucocorticoids (GCs, cortisol, and its synthetic analogs) can influence gene expression via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Unliganded GR resides in the cytoplasm but translocates to the nucleus upon GC binding, where

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Armin Sturm, James E Bron, Darren M Green and Nic R Bury

( Charmandari et al . 2005 , Heitzer et al . 2007 ). The majority of effects of glucocorticoids occur at the genomic level and are mediated through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR; Hollenberg et al . 1985 , Bledsoe et al . 2002 ). The GR belongs to the

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Junhui Zhang, Francis T F Tsai and David S Geller

receptors with a methionine on H5 have a glycine at the H3 position ( Zhang et al. 2005 ). The wide conservation of this interaction suggested a possible functional role. Hence, we investigated the activity of a number of human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR

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CJ Kenyon, M Panarelli, L Zagato, L Torielli, RP Heeley, CD Holloway, R Fraser, G Casari, RG Sutcliffe and G Bianchi

The Milan hypertensive strain of rat (MHS) displays abnormalities in both renal function and adrenocortical activity. While the pressor role of the former has been studied in detail, the role of the latter has not yet been clearly evaluated. In the present study, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding characteristics in liver cytosol from adult MHS and Milan normotensive controls (MNS) have been investigated. Dexamethasone, aldosterone and corticosterone were bound with lower affinity to cytosol of MHS rats compared with that of MNS rats. This pattern of binding could explain the raised plasma corticosterone concentrations and adrenocortical hypertrophy previously noted in MHS. The coding sequence of MHS and MNS GR genes have been determined. The MHS gene differed in four respects from that of MNS: three silent point mutations and a polymorphic microsatellite region in exon 2. The latter polymorphism has been used in cosegregation studies of F2 hybrids of MHS x MNS. The MHS GR genotype was associated with hypercalciuria and lower blood pressure in female rats and lower body weight in male rats. Although the effect on blood pressure is small, it is consistent with the affinity data. MHS GR genotype cosegregated with lower blood pressure in F2 rats and displayed a lower affinity in binding studies. In conclusion, GR polymorphism may be responsible for differences of adrenocortical function between MHS and MNS. This may lead to a reduction in the blood pressure difference between the two strains.