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C Attané, D Daviaud, C Dray, R Dusaulcy, M Masseboeuf, D Prévot, C Carpéné, I Castan-Laurell, and P Valet

humans. These results are in line with our previous study performed in mice indicating that i) ex vivo , in soleus skeletal muscle, apelin stimulated AMPK and glucose uptake ( Dray et al . 2008 ) and that ii) in vivo , apelin perfusion during a

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Maria Jacoba Kruger, Maria Martha Conradie, Magda Conradie, and Mari van de Vyver

from the other groups and could be contributing factors. Even though this study was done in an ex vivo setting and needs validation in vivo , it signified that although obesity per se (not dyslipidaemia or glucose dysregulation) is the main cause

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KJ Starkey, A Janezic, G Jones, N Jordan, G Baker, and M Ludgate

The thyrotrophin receptor (TSHR) provides an autoantigenic link between the thyroid and orbit in Graves' (GD) and thyroid eye diseases (TED). We measured TSHR transcripts in different fat depots to determine whether TSHR expression levels are influenced by the autoimmune/inflammatory process and/or thyroid hormone status, using quantitative real-time PCR. Nine intact or fractionated adipose samples, from patients with GD and/or TED, were analysed ex vivo. Eight expressed the TSHR, at levels approaching the thyroid, and one was at the limit of detection. Thirteen/fifteen orbital and abdominal fat samples from patients free of GD and TED, measured ex vivo, were negative for TSHR transcripts and two were at the limit of detection. All preadipocyte samples induced to differentiate in vitro expressed the TSHR. To investigate the influence of thyroid hormone status on adipose TSHR expression, we induced hyper- and hypothyroidism in BALBc mice by administering tri-iodothyronine and propylthiouracil respectively. In euthyroid animals, whole fat samples were at the limit of detection and were not altered by thyroid hormone status. The results show that adipose TSHR expression ex vivo indicates adipogenesis in progress in vivo and is associated with the autoimmune/inflammatory process in GD and TED but is not restricted to the orbit or influenced by thyroid hormone status.

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Pamela Navarrete-Ramírez, Maricela Luna, Carlos Valverde-R, and Aurea Orozco

functional relevance of T 2 bioactivity and its mechanism of action, two approaches were employed. In vivo , we analyzed whether T 3 and T 2 differentially regulate the S-TRβ1 and L-TRβ1 isoforms during a physiological demand such as body growth. Ex vivo

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Parmita Kar and Ravinder Goswami

striatum tissues and also developed an ex vivo model of BGC using rat striatal cells cultured under high phosphate and low calcium milieu ( Kar et al. 2021 ). The hyperphosphatemic state, characteristic of hypoparathyroidism, achieved by the addition of

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Xinxin Xiang, Wenjiao An, Changtao Jiang, Jing Zhao, Xian Wang, Guang Sun, Yin Li, and Weizhen Zhang

were pretreated with the indicated inhibitors for 1 h before treatment with LPS 300 ng/ml for 24 h. Ex vivo culture of adipose tissues The minced fat pads were diluted in serum-free DMEM. After being incubated at 37 °C for 1 h, adipose tissue fragments

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Thalijn Liliana Catharina Wolters, Mihai Gheorghe Netea, Adrianus Rudolfus Marinus Maria Hermus, Johannes Willem Adriaan Smit, and Romana Teodora Netea-Maier

, supernatants were collected and stored at −20°C until assayed. Ex vivo stimulation of WB Venous blood was drawn in 4 mL lithium-heparin tubes (Vacutainer, BD; Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). 100 μL of WB was incubated at 37°C in 48-well plates (Greiner) with

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Cynthia S Ritter and Alex J Brown

direct involvement of the VDR has not been demonstrated. In the current study, we developed a novel organ culture model for the study of parathyroid gland function ex vivo . For the first time, we provide proof of the requirement of the VDR for

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Jin Bai, Thomas J Lechuga, Joshua Makhoul, Hao Yan, Carol Major, Afshan Hameed, and Dong-bao Chen

). H 2 S stimulates pregnancy-dependent relaxation of pressurized UA ex vivo ( Sheibani et al. 2017 , Li et al. 2020 ) via activating SM large conductance Ca 2+ -activated and voltage-dependent potassium channels ( Li et al. 2020 ) for estrogen

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Soumyadeep Dey, Xiaoxia Li, Ruifeng Teng, Mawadda Alnaeeli, ZhiYong Chen, Heather Rogers, and Constance Tom Noguchi

collectively point to an important and previously unrecognized role for EpoR signaling to contribute to leptin response in hypothalamus NPC ex vivo . Interestingly, LepRb mRNA levels showed a small but significant reduction in ΔEpoR E cultures compared to