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Jin Bai, Thomas J Lechuga, Joshua Makhoul, Hao Yan, Carol Major, Afshan Hameed, and Dong-bao Chen

). Pregnancy-associated UA dilation is accompanied by elevated endogenous estrogens whose total levels in the third trimester in women can reach as high as 1000-fold that of NP state ( Magness et al. 1998 ). Daily estradiol-17β (E 2 β) treatment increases

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Meghan S Perkins, Renate Louw-du Toit, and Donita Africander

Introduction Menopause is characterized by the natural, age-related decrease in endogenous estrogen production in women, often leading to a variety of symptoms such as hot flashes, mood swings and night sweats ( Johnson 1998 , Greendale et

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Christopher C Valley, Natalia M Solodin, Ginny L Powers, Stephanie J Ellison, and Elaine T Alarid

Introduction Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) is the predominant of two ERs, α and β, that mediate the actions of estrogen in the reproductive system. It functions as a transcriptional regulator, inducing cellular responses through the regulation of gene

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C Roger, S Lambard, A Bouskine, B Mograbi, D Chevallier, M Nebout, G Pointis, S Carreau, and P Fenichel

Introduction Estrogens are important regulators of cell proliferation in many reproductive and extra-reproductive tissues in both sexes. This control is cell-specific, depending on the expression of two related estrogen receptors

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Saad El Marzouk, Jennifer R Schultz-Norton, Varsha S Likhite, Ian X McLeod, John R Yates, and Ann M Nardulli

hormone dependent and provides a link between various cues received by receptors on the cell surface and the activity of receptors in the nucleus. Our laboratory has been interested in identifying proteins that influence estrogen-responsive gene expression

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H Watanabe, E Takahashi, M Kobayashi, M Goto, A Krust, P Chambon, and T Iguchi

Introduction The uterus is a major target organ of estrogen and undergoes drastic changes after estrogen administration. Early uterine responses to estrogen include many physiological biochemical changes such as hyperemia, calcium

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Jerzy-Roch Nofer

in coronary risk after menopause is strongly suggestive of an important role of estrogen levels in the etiology of MI in women ( Lerner & Kannel 1986 , Pérez-López et al . 2009 ). Studies on males with defective estrogen action add further support

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A M Tarrant, S R Greytak, G V Callard, and M E Hahn

Introduction The estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors ( Giguere et al. 1988 ). Three ERR genes have been identified in mammals, ERRα (NR3B1), ERRβ (NR3B

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Debolina Chakraborty, Ashish Sarkar, Sonia Mann, Monu, Prachi Agnihotri, Mohd Saquib, Swati Malik, Rajkamal Kumavat, Anushka Mathur, and Sagarika Biswas

look through the pathways governed by the sex hormones during RA conditions. In females, estrogen delivers a very important role not only in reproduction, behavior, cognition, and bone integrity but also in imparting various therapeutic interventions

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Rosalia C M Simmen and Angela S Kelley

Estrogens are key mediators of endometrial homeostasis; hence, any dysregulation in their synthesis, metabolism, and/or activities irrefutably leads to a broad range of endometrial pathologies. Two major estrogen receptor proteins, estrogen