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Seung Chul Kim, Mee-Na Park, Young Joo Lee, Jong Kil Joo, and Beum-Soo An

placenta are associated with complications such as preeclampsia and preterm delivery ( Albrecht & Pepe 2010 ). Estrogen acts by binding to its receptor, estrogen receptor (ER). ER exists in two main forms, ERα (ESR1) and ERβ (ESR2), which have distinct

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Rosalia C M Simmen and Angela S Kelley

Estrogens are key mediators of endometrial homeostasis; hence, any dysregulation in their synthesis, metabolism, and/or activities irrefutably leads to a broad range of endometrial pathologies. Two major estrogen receptor proteins, estrogen

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María Angeles Arevalo, María Santos-Galindo, Natalia Lagunas, Iñigo Azcoitia, and Luis M Garcia-Segura

compounds ( Dowers et al . 2006 ). SERMs bind to estrogen receptors (ERs) and induce specific changes in their three-dimensional conformation ( Brzozowski et al . 1997 , Paige et al . 1999 ) allowing a tissue-selective recruitment of transcriptional

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Agua Sobrino, Pilar J Oviedo, Susana Novella, Andrés Laguna-Fernandez, Carlos Bueno, Miguel Angel García-Pérez, Juan J Tarín, Antonio Cano, and Carlos Hermenegildo

activation of estrogen receptors (ERs). Two major subtypes of ERs (ERα and ERβ) have been identified, although the contribution of both receptors to the regulation of vascular effects is still obscure ( Cano & Hermenegildo 2000 ). There is controversy over

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Nina Gustafsson Sheppard, Nina Heldring, and Karin Dahlman-Wright

Introduction Estrogen receptor α (ERα) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors and regulates genes including those involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and motility in the breast ( Dahlman-Wright et

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Sylvia C Hewitt, Wipawee Winuthayanon, and Kenneth S Korach

Estrogen receptor The vast majority of estrogen's activities are mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER), a member of the nuclear receptor family of hormone activated transcription factors. Our understanding of the physiological role of estrogen

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B Horard, A Castet, P-L Bardet, V Laudet, V Cavailles, and J-M Vanacker

-response element (ERE) contains two core elements in a head-to-head orientation spaced by three nucleotides, and it binds the estrogen receptors (ER) α and β as homodimers ( Kumar & Chambon 1988 , Tsai et al. 1988 ) or as α/β heterodimers ( Cowley et al. 1997

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Stephen Safe and Kyoungkim Kim

Ligand-dependent activation of estrogen receptor (ER)/specificity protein (SP) Introduction SP1 was the first transcription factor identified in the early 1980s ( Dynan & Tjian 1983 , 1985 , Briggs et al . 1986 ) and is a member of the Sp

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A M Tarrant, S R Greytak, G V Callard, and M E Hahn

Introduction The estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors ( Giguere et al. 1988 ). Three ERR genes have been identified in mammals, ERRα (NR3B1), ERRβ (NR3B

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Douglas Yee

’s ovaries resulting in regression of her locally advanced breast cancer ( Beatson 1896 ). The discovery of the molecular structure of estrogen receptor-α (ER), the identification of molecules disrupting estrogen binding to ER, the inhibition of peripheral