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Ana Luísa Neves, João Coelho, Luciana Couto, Adelino Leite-Moreira and Roberto Roncon-Albuquerque Jr

concentrations, a threshold named ‘metabolic endotoxemia’ (ME; Cani et al . 2007 a ). ME may trigger toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-mediated inflammatory activation, eliciting a chronic low-grade proinflammatory and pro-oxidative stress status associated with

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Isabel Castro, Leah Quisenberry, Rosa-Maria Calvo, Maria-Jesus Obregon and Joaquin Lado-Abeal

well as on the activity of DIO enzymes at a multi-tissue level, and iii) NF-kB nuclear binding activity and its correlation with the tissue-specific decrease in THRB gene expression observed during endotoxemia. Materials and methods Animals The study

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Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Liu, Jiqiu Wang, Juan Shi, Yingkai Sun, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Ruixin Liu and Jie Hong

richness in the microbiome ( Le Chatelier et al . 2013 ). Many studies demonstrated that gut microbiota maintain energy homeostasis by affecting gut barrier, which is important for metabolic endotoxemia and metabolic disorders ( Cani et al . 2009 ). These

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Jinghua Peng and Ling He

. Endotoxemia-mediated P300 induction through the activation of the IRE1-XBP1s pathway A high-fat, western-style diet is an important predisposing factor for the onset of diabetes and obesity. HFD feeding results in changes in gut microbiota that initiate

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Xinxin Xiang, Wenjiao An, Changtao Jiang, Jing Zhao, Xian Wang, Guang Sun, Yin Li and Weizhen Zhang

of LPS had no effect on insulin sensitivity. Our data suggest that low dose of LPS may improve the glucose tolerance. Consistent with our study, van der Crabben et al . (2009) showed that early endotoxemia increases peripheral and hepatic insulin

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Hseng-Kuang Hsu, Pei-Lin Shao, Ke-Li Tsai, Huei-Chuan Shih, Tzu-Ying Lee and Chin Hsu

Interactions between CBP, NF-kappaB, and CREB in the lungs after hemorrhage and endotoxemia. American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 281 L418 –L426. Sheppard KA , Rose DW, Haque ZK, Kurokawa R

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Ping Jiang, Jinwen Xu, Shuhui Zheng, Jinghe Huang, Qiuling Xiang, Xiaodong Fu and Tinghuai Wang

of endotoxemia with carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease: prospective results from the Bruneck Study . Journal of the American College of Cardiology 34 1975 – 1981 . Wu J Gong J Geng J Song Y 2008 Deoxycholic acid

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J Jason Collier, Tim E Sparer, Michael D Karlstad and Susan J Burke

MA Poggi M Knauf C Bastelica D Neyrinck AM Fava F Tuohy KM Chabo C 2007 Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance . Diabetes 56 1761 – 1772 . ( doi:10.2337/db06-1491 ) Carneiro LA