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Alvaro Moreira, Samuel Kahlenberg, and Peter Hornsby

utility of MSCs as therapeutic agents for an array of medical conditions. The aim of this review is to provide a concise summary of the existing literature evaluating MSCs as novel therapeutic agents for diabetes mellitus. Additionally, this focused

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Mohamed H Noureldein, Sara Bitar, Natalie Youssef, Sami Azar, and Assaad A Eid

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a wide range of etiologies, intricate pathogenesis and predisposes for various serious micro- and macro-vascular complications. Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with disturbance of gut

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Afreen Idris Shariff, Sohail Syed, Rebecca A Shelby, Jeremy Force, Jeffrey Melson Clarke, David D’Alessio, and Leonor Corsino

both and have been associated with the development of both T1DM and T2DM ( Yang & Yee 2012 ). It is important to note that a concurrent diagnosis of diabetes is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in patients with cancer. A large

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Rebecca H Ritchie, Eser J Zerenturk, Darnel Prakoso, and Anna C Calkin

first observed in the 1970s after post-mortem studies of four individuals exhibiting concomitant diabetes and heart failure, in the absence of hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD) or other likely causal factors ( Rubler et al . 1972 , Regan et

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Christopher E Wall, Ruth T Yu, Anne R Atkins, Michael Downes, and Ronald M Evans

, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes ( Knowler et al . 2002 , Shin et al . 2013 ). Even a small increase in daily physical activity can improve muscle fitness, promote resistance to diet-induced obesity, and reduce systemic inflammation ( Warburton et al . 2006

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Haihua Yang and Linghai Yang

probably not in all T2D patients ( Samuel et al . 2009 ). Increased expression of G6Pase in the liver is also associated with diabetes ( Haber et al . 1995 , van Schaftingen & Gerin 2002 ). PGC1α is a transcriptional coactivator that plays a central role

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Custodia García-Jiménez, Jose Manuel García-Martínez, Ana Chocarro-Calvo, and Antonio De la Vieja

population may be attributed to treatment for diabetes, to hormonal disorders, to the status of chronic inflammation and to metabolic alterations underlying the diseases (summarized in Fig. 1 ). Moreover, diabetes may also develop following tumor

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Yanyan Cao, Yunsheng Li, Jaekyung Kim, Yulin Ren, Klaus Himmeldirk, Yi Liu, Yanrong Qian, Fengming Liu, and Xiaozhuo Chen

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and T2D are two major endocrine diseases characterized by insufficient insulin receptor (IR) signaling resulting in hyperglycemia ( Zimmet et al . 2001 , van Belle et al . 2011 , Calhoun et al . 2011

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Evgeny Weinberg, Tal Maymon, and Miron Weinreb

Introduction Osteoporosis is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and patients with either T1DM or T2DM experience a higher incidence of fractures ( Schwartz 2003 , Yamagishi et al . 2005 ). Numerous rat and mouse studies have

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Kira Meyerovich, Fernanda Ortis, Florent Allagnat, and Alessandra K Cardozo

role of the UPR in the context of β-cell demise leading to diabetes ( Brozzi & Eizirik 2016 , Hasnain et al. 2016 ). This article focuses on (1) the signal transduction pathways involved in the UPR and their connections to inflammation, (2) the