Selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) have considerable potential as treatment for osteoporosis as well as metabolic syndrome including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we investigated the anti-diabetic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-osteoporotic activity of KR-67500, as a novel selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor. Cellular 11β-HSD1 activity was tested based on a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence method. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) levels were measured in diet-induced obese (DIO)-C57BL/6 mice administered KR-67500 (50 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 28 days and, additionally, its anti-diabetic effect was evaluated by OGTT and ITT. The in vitro anti-adipogenic effect of KR-67500 was determined by Oil Red O Staining. The in vitro anti-osteoporotic activity of KR-67500 was evaluated using bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteoblast differentiation and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation model systems. KR-67500 improved the in vivo glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO-C57BL/6 mice. KR-67500 suppressed cortisone-induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. KR-67500 enhanced BMP2-induced osteoblastogenesis in C2C12 cells and inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. KR-67500, a new selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, may provide a new therapeutic window in the prevention and/or treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and/or osteoporosis.
Ji Seon Park, Su Jung Bae, Sik-Won Choi, You Hwa Son, Sung Bum Park, Sang Dal Rhee, Hee Youn Kim, Won Hoon Jung, Seung Kyu Kang, Jin Hee Ahn, Seong Hwan Kim and Ki Young Kim
Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez and Rubén Nogueiras
GPR55 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been identified as a new cannabinoid receptor. Given the wide localization of GPR55 in brain and peripheral tissues, this receptor has emerged as a regulator of multiple biological actions. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is generally accepted as the endogenous ligand of GPR55. In this review, we will focus on the role of GPR55 in energy balance and glucose metabolism. We will summarize its actions on feeding, nutrient partitioning, gastrointestinal motility and insulin secretion in preclinical models and the scarce data available in humans. The potential of GPR55 to become a new pharmaceutical target to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes, as well as the foreseeing difficulties are also discussed.
Daniela Nasteska and David J Hodson
It is becoming increasingly apparent that not all insulin-secreting beta cells are equal. Subtle differences exist at the transcriptomic and protein expression levels, with repercussions for beta cell survival/proliferation, calcium signalling and insulin release. Notably, beta cell heterogeneity displays plasticity during development, metabolic stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thus, heterogeneity or lack thereof may be an important contributor to beta cell failure during T2DM in both rodents and humans. The present review will discuss the molecular and cellular features of beta cell heterogeneity at both the single-cell and islet level, explore how this influences islet function and insulin release and look into the alterations that may occur during obesity and T2DM.
Inês Cebola and Lorenzo Pasquali
Most of the genetic variation associated with diabetes, through genome-wide association studies, does not reside in protein-coding regions, making the identification of functional variants and their eventual translation to the clinic challenging. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing-based methods have enabled genome-scale high-resolution epigenomic profiling in a variety of human tissues, allowing the exploration of the human genome outside of the well-studied coding regions. These experiments unmasked tens of thousands of regulatory elements across several cell types, including diabetes-relevant tissues, providing new insights into their mechanisms of gene regulation. Regulatory landscapes are highly dynamic and cell-type specific and, being sensitive to DNA sequence variation, can vary with individual genomes. The scientific community is now in place to exploit the regulatory maps of tissues central to diabetes etiology, such as pancreatic progenitors and adult islets. This giant leap forward in the understanding of pancreatic gene regulation is revolutionizing our capacity to discriminate between functional and non-functional non-coding variants, opening opportunities to uncover regulatory links between sequence variation and diabetes susceptibility. In this review, we focus on the non-coding regulatory landscape of the pancreatic endocrine cells and provide an overview of the recent developments in this field.
Jinghua Peng and Ling He
Insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism underlying the development of insulin resistance is still not completely understood. Previous reports showed that posttranslational modifications of IRS play a critical role in insulin signaling, especially the phosphorylation of IRS by distinct kinases. While it is known that increasing Sirtuin1 deacetylase activity improves insulin sensitivity in the liver, the identity of its counterpart, an acetyl-transferase, remains unknown. Our recent study shows that elevated endotoxin (LPS) levels in the liver of obese mice lead to the induction of the acetyl-transferase P300 through the IRE1-XBP1s pathway. Subsequently, induced P300 impairs insulin signaling by acetylating IRS1 and IRS2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Therefore, the P300 acetyl-transferase activity appears to be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes.
Vivek Madhukar Surse, Jeena Gupta and Kulbhushan Tikoo
occurring substances to prevent the complications of diabetes. II. Inhibitory effect of coumarin and flavonoid derivatives on bovine lens aldose reductase and rabbit platelet aggregation . Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 43 1385 – 1387 . Onozato