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Elizabeth M Pritchett, Susan J Lamont and Carl J Schmidt

unique to this particular tissue at specific points in development. These data confer a better understanding of the genes and pathways that are critical to the function of the pituitary gland. Materials and methods Animal housing and tissue

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Philip A Gruppuso and Jennifer A Sanders

development from mid-gestation to term may be thought of as comprising two interrelated but distinct processes, growth in liver mass and functional differentiation. The net result of these two processes is sufficient capacity for the liver to ensure metabolic

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Gemma Tan, Andrew G Elefanty and Edouard G Stanley

will be required. Development of the pancreas In order to differentiate PSCs in vitro toward a pancreatic cell fate, it is helpful to understand the process of pancreatic organogenesis. Extensive studies involving mouse models have led to a

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Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Rachel V Richardson, Martin A Denvir and Karen E Chapman

remodelling ( Messaoudi et al . 2012 ), how both receptors influence cardiac development and maturation remains poorly understood. GR is certainly present in the human heart from 12 weeks of gestation ( Ballard & Ballard 1974 ) and in mouse heart from as

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Yisheng Yang, Stephanie Workman and Megan J Wilson

developmental trajectory is an essential process that determines the reproductive success of all sexually reproducing animals ( Fig. 1 ). There are a number of different mechanisms underlying sex development that can be broadly categorized as either genetically

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Enzo Lalli

al . 2008 ) and sumoylation, which may affect subnuclear localization of SF-1 and its DNA-binding activity ( Chen et al . 2004 , Komatsu et al . 2004 , Lee et al . 2005 , Campbell et al . 2008 ). An essential actor in adrenogonadal development

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Nils Wierup, Frank Sundler and R Scott Heller

the almost one and a half centuries that have passed since the islets were first discovered, several islet cell types have been described in different mammalian species and at different stages of development. In adult humans, the islets have until

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Sofia A Rahman, Azizun Nessa and Khalid Hussain

cohorts have reported DM, despite family members experiencing hypoglycaemia continuing into adulthood and beyond the age of 60 ( Thornton et al . 2003 ). The proposed mechanism for development of DM has been attributed to β-cell apoptosis mediated via

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Beatriz Gámez, Edgardo Rodriguez-Carballo and Francesc Ventura

Introduction Skeletal development is a process that involves a complex sequence of events, which are regulated by a wide range of signaling pathways ( Karsenty 2008 ). Yet, it mainly involves only three specific types of cells: chondrocytes in

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Mitsushige Ando, Masanori Goto, Masato Hojo, Aya Kita, Masashi Kitagawa, Toshiyuki Ohtsuka, Ryoichiro Kageyama and Susumu Miyamoto

that Hes1 and Hes5 control adenohypohyseal progenitor cells during pituitary development ( Zhu et al . 2006 , Kita et al . 2007 , Raetzman et al . 2007 ). Furthermore, Hes1 and Hes5 are essential for formation of the neurohypophysis ( Goto