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Angelina Rafaela Debortoli, Wender do Nascimento Rouver, Nathalie Tristão Banhos Delgado, Vinicius Mengal, Erick Roberto Gonçalves Claudio, Laena Pernomian, Lusiane Maria Bendhack, Margareth Ribeiro Moysés and Roger Lyrio dos Santos

et al . 2013 ) and the mesenteric artery in rats ( Lindsey et al. 2011 a ), the coronary artery in pig ( Meyer et al. 2010 ), spontaneously hypertensive rats ( De Francesco et al . 2013 ) and the carotid artery in male and female Sprague

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Jéssyca Aparecida Soares Giesen, Wender do Nascimento Rouver, Eduardo Damasceno Costa, Virgínia Soares Lemos and Roger Lyrio dos Santos

the development of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension and coronary artery disease, in postmenopausal women and men is higher than in premenopausal women ( Benjamin et al. 2018 ). Furthermore, endothelial dysfunction appears to be the common

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Choa Park, Joonwoo Park, Myeong Kuk Shim, Mee-Ra Rhyu, Byung-Koo Yoon, Kyung Sook Kim and YoungJoo Lee

cyclooxygenase-2 levels in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells . American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism 298 E838 – E845 . ( https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00693.2009 ) 10.1152/ajpendo.00693.2009) Owens GK Kumar MS Wamhoff BR

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Lichun Zhou, Baohua Ma and Xiuzhen Han

, Abel & Doenst 2011 ). Pathological cardiac hypertrophy develops in response to disorders such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, metabolic and diabetic cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease, which eventually give rise

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Özlem Erdogdu, Linnéa Eriksson, Hua Xu, Åke Sjöholm, Qimin Zhang and Thomas Nyström

dysfunction induced by ischemia reperfusion injury ( Ha et al . 2011 ) and after a high-fat meal load ( Koska et al . 2010 ), effects suggested to be GLP1 receptor and NO dependent ( Nyström et al . 2004 ). We previously reported that human coronary artery

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E Grossini, C Molinari, L Sigaudo, M Biella, D A S G Mary and G Vacca

performed in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells (PCAEC) have shown an acute and dose-dependent endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)-related NO production in response to gastrin-17, which was modulated by β 2 -adrenoreceptor agonists/antagonists and was

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Su M Hlaing, Leah A Garcia, Jaime R Contreras, Keith C Norris, Monica G Ferrini and Jorge N Artaza

the canonical WNT pathway significantly reduced post-infarct mortality and functional decline of LV following chronic left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by an increase in cell size, and is

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T Walther, S Heringer-Walther, R Tschope, A Reinecke, HP Schultheiss and C Tschope

C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a recent addition to the family of natriuretic peptides including atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP), is believed to be an endothelium-derived vasodilator and to have an antimitotic effect. ANP and BNP concentrations are increased in conditions such as congestive heart failure, but cardiac CNP concentrations have not been investigated in this connection. Diabetes mellitus also involves myocardial dysfunctions without coronary artery disease or systemic hypertension. We therefore investigated the cardiac expression of CNP mRNA compared with that of BNP mRNA in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. STZ- diabetic male Wistar rats (n=6) were studied in comparison with controls (n=6). The animals were characterised by their mean arterial blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. After extraction of total cardiac RNA, a specific cDNA probe of BNP was used for northern blot analysis, whereas myocardial CNP expression was analysed by an RNase-protection assay. Twelve weeks after diabetes was induced, the rats were normotensive (96.4+/-2.0 compared with 95.1+/-1.9 mmHg) and hyperglycaemic (615+/-61 compared with 165+/-21 mg/dl; P<0.001). Left ventricular pressure was significantly impaired (76.8+/-6.4 compared with 51.2+/-3.6 mmHg). STZ-diabetic rats had a 3.2-fold increase in cardiac BNP expression compared with controls. In contrast, cardiac CNP mRNA concentrations were decreased 2.6-fold. CNP seems to be downregulated like other peptides with antimitotic and vasodilator activities (nitric oxide, prostacyclin, kinins). This may contribute to cardiac dysfunction in diabetes mellitus and suggests that stimulation of CNP expression could provide cardiac protection in such cases.

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A Kawakoshi, S Hyodo, K Inoue, Y Kobayashi and Y Takei

The natriuretic peptide (NP) family is composed of three members: atrial, brain/ventricular and C-type NPs (ANP, BNP/VNP and CNP respectively) in tetrapods and teleostean fish, but only CNP in elasmobranch fish. In order to trace the process of divergence of the NP family in early vertebrate evolution, we attempted to detect NPs in the primitive ray-finned fish, the sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Unexpectedly, we isolated four distinct NP cDNAs from the heart and brain of this chondrostean fish. The single NP from the brain was CNP, as judged from the lack of C-terminal 'tail' sequence extending from the intramolecular ring. Two of the three cardiac NPs were ANP and VNP, as judged by the presence of an amidation signal at its C-terminus (ANP) and a long and conserved C-terminal tail sequence (VNP) respectively. The third cardiac NP was most probably BNP because it possessed all the features characteristic of BNP including: (1) the presence of dibasic amino acids within the intramolecular ring; (2) the presence of AUUUA repeats in the 3'-untranslated region of its mRNA; (3) equivalent expression of its mRNA in the atrium and ventricle and appreciable expression in the brain. Based on the sturgeon BNP sequence, we further isolated BNP cDNA from the heart of tilapia and pufferfish for the first time in teleostean fish. Phylogenetic analysis of the precursors showed that newly identified NPs belong to each group of the four NPs. The current identification of both VNP and BNP in the sturgeon clearly showed that BNP and VNP are coded by distinct genes, and that the NP family consists of at least four members in the ray-finned fish. VNP has not been molecularly identified in mammals but its presence is suggested from physiological studies; heterologous fish VNP exhibited more potent vasorelaxant activity than homologous mammalian ANP in the isolated coronary artery of dogs.

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S I Chisalita, G S Johansson, E Liefvendahl, K Bäck and H J Arnqvist

. IGF1Rs were expressed and activated at physiological IGF1 concentrations in HASMC, as previously shown in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells ( Chisalita & Arnqvist 2005 ). When membranes are developed with the anti-phosphotyrosine antibody PY20