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Feng Wang, Lu Wang, Yifeng Wang, Dai Li, Tianpeng Hu, Manyi Sun and Ping Lei

partly explain the effect of metabolic disorders on cognitive function in elderly ( Mukherjee et al . 2018 , Zhong et al . 2019 ). cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcriptional regulator in the nucleus of neurons, which plays an

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Silvia Giatti, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi and Marzia Pesaresi

Study reported a decline of cognitive functions in postmenopausal women treated with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and MPA ( Shumaker et al. 2003 ). The same combination produced, in postmenopausal women independently of their age, a decline in

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Sriram Gubbi, Gabriela Farias Quipildor, Nir Barzilai, Derek M Huffman and Sofiya Milman

study showed beneficial effects of GHRH administration on cognitive function in older adults who were healthy or had MCI ( Baker et al . 2012 ). However, a year-long experimental replacement of peripheral IGF1 in older females failed to achieve

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María Angeles Arevalo, María Santos-Galindo, Natalia Lagunas, Iñigo Azcoitia and Luis M Garcia-Segura

)00085-3 . Debess J Riis JØ Engebjerg MC Ewertz M 2010 Cognitive function after adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer: a population-based longitudinal study . Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 121 91 – 100 . doi:10.1007/s10549

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Jaume Folch, Ignacio Pedrós, Iván Patraca, Francesc Sureda, Fèlix Junyent, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Ester Verdaguer, Mercè Pallàs, Carme Auladell and Antoni Camins

al . 2008 ); b) decreasing the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and, thus, reducing the levels of tau protein phosphorylation ( Greco et al . 2009 b ) and c) improving the cognitive function ( Tezapsidis et al . 2009 ). Firstly, it

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Emily Jane Gallagher and Derek LeRoith

correlations and direct correlations between circulating IGF1 levels and cognitive function. Additionally, in Parkinson’s disease and cerebrovascular conditions, conflicting results have been described. Thus, while there are definite effects of high or low IGF1

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Sehee Kim, Chanyang Kim and Seungjoon Park

NSCs proliferation and thereby act as neurogenic agents. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, which is detrimental to cognitive function ( Kodl & Seaquist 2008 ). Therefore, diabetes often results in increased risk

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Alessandro Peri and Mario Serio

& Brann 2002 ) and a beneficial role of tamoxifen and raloxifene against β-amyloid toxicity has been demonstrated in rat neurons ( O'Neill et al . 2004 a , b ). The Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation trial evaluated the cognitive function in more

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Spyridon Arampatzis, Bert Kadereit, Daniela Schuster, Zoltan Balazs, Roberto A S Schweizer, Felix J Frey, Thierry Langer and Alex Odermatt

al. 2003 ). Furthermore, inhibition of 11β-HSD1 improved cognitive function in healthy elderly men and in type 2 diabetics ( Sandeep et al. 2004 ) and lowered intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension ( Rauz et al. 2003 ). These

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Cinzia Puppin, Nadia Passon, Jerome M Hershman, Sebastiano Filetti, Stefania Bulotta, Marilena Celano, Diego Russo and Giuseppe Damante

glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)/β-catenin and ERK pathways ( Rosenberg 2007 ). In a rodent model of traumatic brain injury, VPA, but not SAHA, provides neuroprotection and improves cognitive functions ( Dash et al . 2010 ). In contrast, SAHA, but not