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He-jun Zhao, Xia Jiang, Li-juan Hu, Lei Yang, Lian-dong Deng, Ya-ping Wang, and Zhi-peng Ren

within weeks of treatment initiation ( Amrutkar & Gladhaug 2017 ). Although several genetic and/or epigenetic alterations have been found to contribute to the chemoresistance of pancreatic adenocarcinomas ( Kim & Gallick 2008 , Tamburrino et al . 2013

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E Mato, C González, A Moral, J I Pérez, O Bell, E Lerma, and A de Leiva

in the thyroid gland ( Hoshi et al . 2007 ). This gene, referred to as the breast cancer resistance protein, is implicated in protection against several xenobiotics, in chemoresistance, and maintenance of the regenerative capacity of adult tissue

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James W Antoon, William D Meacham, Melyssa R Bratton, Evelyn M Slaughter, Lyndsay V Rhodes, Hasina B Ashe, Thomas E Wiese, Matthew E Burow, and Barbara S Beckman

, endocrine therapy resistance and chemoresistance. SK signaling is a mechanism of estrogen-induced proliferation and S1P is known to increase levels of circulating estrogen in the system ( Doll et al . 2007 , Lucki & Sewer 2008 ). The role of S1P in

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Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, and Rubén Nogueiras

been described as a potent GPR55 inhibitor, blocking both O-1602- and AM251-induced GPR55 signaling in cancer cell lines ( Paul et al. 2014 ) and reducing the chemoresistance of carcinogenic cells ( Singh et al. 2016

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Eui Hyun Kim, Geon A Kim, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Seok Hee Lee, Muhammad Qasim, Curie Ahn, and Byeong Chun Lee

javanica and found to reduce burdens of tumor, mitigate chemoresistance in in vitro and in vivo cancer models ( Ren et al. 2011 , Tao et al. 2014 , Wu et al. 2015 ), and most importantly, specifically inhibit Nrf2 via keap1-dependent

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Guoying Chang, Rui Yang, Yanan Cao, Aifang Nie, Xuefan Gu, and Huiwen Zhang

-dependent small RNA transfer and microRNA-21-driven chemoresistance . Journal of Biological Chemistry 287 5267 – 5277 . ( doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.318865 ) Eliasson L Renstrom E Ding WG Proks P Rorsman P 1997 Rapid ATP-dependent priming

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Lei Yang, Hongzheng Meng, and Maowei Yang

H Sun M Yin Z Qian J 2015 High mobility group box 1-mediated autophagy promotes neuroblastoma cell chemoresistance . Oncology Reports 34 2969 – 2976 . ( doi:10.3892/or.2015.4278 ) Weber DR Haynes K Leonard MB Willi

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Federica Morani, Suratchanee Phadngam, Carlo Follo, Rossella Titone, Gianluca Aimaretti, Alessandra Galetto, Oscar Alabiso, and Ciro Isidoro

addition, a link between the expressions of GLUT molecules and the pGp responsible for chemoresistance has been shown ( Seo et al . 2009 ). Therefore, understanding the signalling pathways that govern the membrane expression of GLUTs and the glucose uptake

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Andreas Hoeflich and Maximilian Bielohuby

inhibitor of growth since forced expression in transformed and untransformed breast cells was associated with a suppression of JNK activation and conferred chemoresistance ( Small et al . 2007 ). Integration of intracellular signaling cascades by ERK1/2 One

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Niamh Cosgrave, Arnold D K Hill, and Leonie S Young

expression of survivin in cancer cells is associated with chemoresistance, poor prognosis, reduced disease survival and decreased apoptosis leading to cancer progression ( Li 2003 ). Data from an in vivo tumour model authenticates a mechanism whereby its