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Tram B Doan, J Dinny Graham and Christine L Clarke

Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women worldwide ( Ferlay et al. 2015 ). Over the past decades, substantial progress toward treatment of primary estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer has been made

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Shu-Ching M Wang, Dennis H Dowhan and George E O Muscat

Introduction The frequency of breast cancer is escalating with improved life expectancy and the increased adoption of western lifestyles ( Jemal et al. 2011 , Ferlay et al. 2015 , Torre et al. 2015 ). Breast cancer is one of the most

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Meghan S Perkins, Renate Louw-du Toit and Donita Africander

severe side effects including coronary heart disease, stroke and increased invasive breast cancer risk ( Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators 2002 , Million Women Study Collaborators 2003 , Krieger et al. 2005 , Vickers et

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Ylenia Perone and Luca Magnani

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and, despite significant progress in detection and treatments, incidence has been steadily increasing in the last 40 years ( Torre et al. 2015 ). Over the past decades, it has become clear

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Evan R Simpson and Kristy A Brown

one mechanism whereby they increase the risk of breast cancer, especially in women who are obese. Dysregulated metabolism is also a driver of obesity-related aromatase expression in the breast, but this topic is beyond the scope of this article

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F M Fioretti, A Sita-Lumsden, C L Bevan and G N Brooke

Breast cancer Breast cancers (BCs) account for one in three newly diagnosed cases of cancer in women and led to 11 600 deaths in 2010 in the UK alone ( CRUK 2014 ). Incidence rates increased by 90% between 1971 and 2010, with the largest increase in

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Carrie S Shemanko

Introduction The complexity of prolactin (PRL) signaling and function in breast cancer biology is apparent, with multiple reports covering a spectrum of observations that range from a protective nature to the induction of lytic bone cells in

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Douglas Yee

Introduction Decreasing mortality rates in breast cancer have been observed since the late 1980s. This decline has been attributed to populationwide screening mammography programs and the greater use of systemic adjuvant therapy ( Berry et al

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Ayse Basak Engin, Atilla Engin and Ipek Isik Gonul

and intermuscular depots in obese premenopausal women ( Janiszewski et al. 2010 ). Postmenopausal patients with high visceral fat area have significantly shorter distant disease-free survival than premenopausal patients in breast cancer series

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Katherine A Leehy, Tarah M Regan Anderson, Andrea R Daniel, Carol A Lange and Julie H Ostrander

+) breast cancer development and progression, acting in part via novel ER/PR/PELP1 signaling and transcriptional complexes ( Daniel et al . 2015 ). In the presence of both estrogen and progesterone, PR action in ER/PR complexes appears to be inhibitory in