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Andrea Weckman, Antonio Di Ieva, Fabio Rotondo, Luis V Syro, Leon D Ortiz, Kalman Kovacs, and Michael D Cusimano

Introduction Autophagy, self-eating, or self-cannabalism is a genetically programmed and evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic pathway. The word ‘autophagy’ derives from the Greek ‘auto’, meaning oneself, and ‘phagy’, to eat ( Levine

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Lichun Zhou, Baohua Ma, and Xiuzhen Han

(ROCK) via G12/13 protein and (d) activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) via the JAK/STAT pathway ( Balakumar & Jagadeesh 2010 ). Autophagy is characterized by an evolutionarily conserved process for the lysosome-dependent degradation of

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Lei Yang, Hongzheng Meng, and Maowei Yang

, Weinberg et al. 2014 , Tanaka et al. 2015 ). Autophagy closely interacts with apoptosis ( Maiuri et al. 2007 ). Autophagy plays a housekeeping role in eliminating old organelles, misfolded proteins, and damaged molecules; it also plays a role in

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Vaishnavi Venugopalan, Maren Rehders, Jonas Weber, Lisa Rodermund, Alaa Al-Hashimi, Tonia Bargmann, Janine Golchert, Vivien Reinecke, Georg Homuth, Uwe Völker, Francois Verrey, Janine Kirstein, Heike Heuer, Ulrich Schweizer, Doreen Braun, Eva K Wirth, and Klaudia Brix

et al. 2021 a ). The data showed that despite impaired TH export, male mice lacking Mct8 ( Mct8 −/y ) display persistent cathepsin-mediated Tg proteolysis due to enhanced lysosomal biogenesis, which is triggered by autophagy induction ( Venugopalan

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Qin He, Dan Mei, Sha Sha, Shanshan Fan, Lin Wang, and Ming Dong

mechanisms that underlie the improvement of hepatic steatosis by BBR are poorly delineated. Autophagy is a cellular process otherwise known as programmed cell death type 2, which may lead to a form of non-apoptotic cell death ( Park et al. 2007 , Pyo et

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Katarzyna Zielniok, Agnieszka Sobolewska, and Małgorzata Gajewska

& Akers 1999 ). Studies have shown that during dry period bovine MECs show signs of autophagy manifested by a high number of autophagic vacuoles observed and increased expression of autophagic protein beclin1 ( Zarzyńska et al . 2007 ). Autophagy, which

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Björn Hansson, Sebastian Wasserstrom, Björn Morén, Vipul Periwal, Petter Vikman, Samuel W Cushman, Olga Göransson, Petter Storm, and Karin G Stenkula

switching to a HFD ( Li et al . 2016 ). In another study, short-term (15 days) overfeeding was associated with increased autophagy ( Nunez et al . 2013 ), a process tightly linked to organelle recycling and lipid metabolism. These data are in line with

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Yingying Zhu, Weiwei Liu, Shuaigao Chen, Fanxing Xu, Luxin Zhang, Toshihiko Hayashi, Kazunori Mizuno, Shunji Hattori, Hitomi Fujisaki, and Takashi Ikejima

et al. 2018 ). Autophagy is a cellular process characterized by the self-degradation of damaged proteins and dysfunctional organelles, playing an important role in cellular energy homeostasis ( Lee et al. 2019 ). Autophagy is involved in the

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Bo Zhou, Huixia Li, Jiali Liu, Lin Xu, Qinyue Guo, Hongzhi Sun, and Shufang Wu

-sensitive counterparts ( Youn et al . 2009 ), suggesting that progranulin can be a key adipokine to mediate insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism. Although the role of progranulin in adipose tissue in obesity is not fully understood, its link with autophagy in other

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Penny Ahlstrom, Esther Rai, Suharto Chakma, Hee Ho Cho, Palanivel Rengasamy, and Gary Sweeney

skeletal muscle and that increased autophagy contributed to insulin-sensitizing anti-diabetic effects ( Liu et al. 2015 , Xu & Sweeney 2015 ). Others have now also shown that boosting autophagy via a variety of approaches can enhance insulin sensitivity