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Hong Zhao, Ling Zhou, Anna Junjie Shangguan, and Serdar E Bulun

Introduction Aromatase is the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis ( Simpson & Santen 2015 ). The biologically active estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), exerts its actions by binding to its receptors, estrogen receptor-α (ERα) ( Lubahn et

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Evan R Simpson and Kristy A Brown

Introduction Obesity is now recognised to be a low-grade inflammatory condition in which dysregulated metabolism plays an integral role. In this review, we will describe how inflammatory mediators regulate aromatase expression in the human breast as

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Evan Simpson and Richard J Santen

injected, must therefore be transformed in the body into this physiological substance, i.e., urinary oestrogen ’. To our knowledge, this study provided the initial demonstration of aromatase, first in male rats and then in men. Biosynthesis of oestrogens

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Yuiko Matsumoto, Ryohei Yatsu, Caitlin Taylor, and David Crews

aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment induces testicular development at the FPT ( Wibbels et al . 1991 , Crews et al . 1996 ). Although exogenous ligands can override the effect of the incubation temperature, the role of endogenous sex steroid hormones in

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M Bertan Yilmaz, Andrew Wolfe, Hong Zhao, David C Brooks, and Serdar E Bulun

). Estrogen biosynthesis is dependent on the entry of cholesterol into mitochondria, followed by six enzymatic steps. Aromatase is the key enzyme that catalyzes the final step, the conversion of C 19 steroids to biologically active estrogen, estradiol (E 2

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Sandra Kuntz, Amand Chesnel, Stéphane Flament, and Dominique Chardard

stage 42 to stage 54, they differentiate into functional neomales ( Dournon & Houillon, 1985 ). As observed in other non-mammalian vertebrates, steroid hormones and the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme, aromatase, play a key role in P. waltl sex

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S Jesmin, C N Mowa, I Sakuma, N Matsuda, H Togashi, M Yoshioka, Y Hattori, and A Kitabatake

of estrogen in male fertility could include regulation of germ cell development or spermatogenesis, as reviewed by recent studies using mice lacking aromatase ( Robertson et al. 1999 ). In the male, estrogen is produced mainly by the testis

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Jan Wilde, Maria Erdmann, Michael Mertens, Gabriele Eiselt, and Martin Schmidt

Introduction Estrogen synthesis in adipose tissue is the major source of circulating estrogens in aging men and women. Besides this, the finding of elevated aromatase activity and aromatase mRNA expression in the adipose tissue of breast quadrants

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M Gohin, P Bodinier, A Fostier, J Bobe, and F Chesnel

in trout oocytes ( Kamangar et al . 2006 ). E 2 is synthesized by the cytochrome P450 aromatase enzyme that converts androstenedione and testosterone into estrone (E1) and E 2 respectively. In Xenopus , two variants are expressed in the gonads and

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C Bois, C Delalande, M Nurmio, M Parvinen, L Zanatta, J Toppari, and S Carreau

functional changes under the control of several endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors ( Gnessi et al . 1997 , Franca et al . 1998 , McLachlan et al . 2002 ). Among them, estrogens synthesized by the microsomal enzymatic complex aromatase are