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Evgeny Weinberg, Tal Maymon, and Miron Weinreb

). Thus, AGE formation and OxS are clearly major potential mechanisms for the development of diabetes-related osteopenia, possibly via the apoptosis of osteoblasts or their precursors. Bone marrow includes hematopoietic and stromal compartments and

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Xueyao Yin, Fenping Zheng, Qianqian Pan, Saifei Zhang, Dan Yu, Zhiye Xu, and Hong Li

. Furthermore, some authors consider hepatocyte apoptosis as a third hit that promotes the development of cirrhosis ( Jou et al . 2008 ). Although the mechanisms underlying NAFLD development have not yet been clearly elucidated, mitochondrial dysfunction has

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Isabel Moscoso, María Cebro-Márquez, Moisés Rodríguez-Mañero, José Ramón González-Juanatey, and Ricardo Lage

reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis, ceramide synthesis, oxidative stress, contractile dysfunction and apoptosis ( Wende & Abel 2010 ). Irisin is a small polypeptide hormone cleaved from the fibronectin type III

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Li Zhang, Jie Gao, and Sheng Cui

development, as denervation of the ovaries inhibits follicular growth (Advis et al . 1989). In the rat, the importance of its interrelation on the ovarian steroidogenesis and apoptosis on dioestrus II has been demonstrated ( Bronzi et al . 2015 ). However

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Lei Yang, Hongzheng Meng, and Maowei Yang

can induce apoptosis in bone cells through MAPK, p38, caspase-8, and caspase-9 signaling pathways; however, this apoptotic response cannot fully explain the susceptibility of diabetic patients with normal BMD to fracture ( Alikhani et al. 2007

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Lai Jin, Chuanhua Li, Rong Li, Zongxing Sun, Xianjun Fang, and Shengnan Li

peptides, was expressed in prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma ( Arcuri et al . 2002 ). However, the molecular basis of the role of CRH in prostate cancer is not clearly presented. We previously found that CRH activated CRHR1 to induce apoptosis through

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Kei Tamura, Shutaro Takayama, Takako Ishii, Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Nobuhiko Takamatsu, and Michihiko Ito

for studying the molecular mechanisms of programed cell death ( Tata 2006 ). A complex of T 3 and its receptor (thyroid hormone receptor (TR)) regulate gene transcription and induce apoptosis ( Brown et al . 1996 , Sachs et al . 2000 ). Results of

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Shadab Abadpour, Bente Halvorsen, Afaf Sahraoui, Olle Korsgren, Pål Aukrust, and Hanne Scholz

could involve induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress leading to pro-inflammatory responses and apoptosis within an islet ( Federici et al . 2001 ). LIGHT/TNSFS14 (TNF superfamily member 14) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine in the

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Ying Ying, Huazhang Zhu, Zhen Liang, Xiaosong Ma, and Shiwei Li

al . 2000 , Boudina & Abel 2007 ). Excessive saturated fatty acids such as palmitate induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which ultimately contributes to cardiac dysfunction and failure ( Chiu et al . 2001 , Narula et al . 2001 ). In vitro studies

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Chuan-Chou Tu, V Bharath Kumar, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Wei-Wen Kuo, Su-Peng Yeh, Ray-Jade Chen, Chen-Rong Liao, Hsiao-Yu Chen, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Wen-Jun Wu, and Chih-Yang Huang

ERα (ESR1) through PI3K/Akt signaling ( Lee & Nam 2008 ), whereas in ERβ (ESR2)-overexpressing colon cancer cells, E 2 treatment induces apoptosis without altering the expression of TNFα ( Hsu et al . 2006 ). Thus, the present study aimed to