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Ye Zhou, Eric C Bolton and Jeremy O Jones

cause tumor regression ( Huggins & Clark 1940 ). Since then, our ability to inhibit androgen synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) signaling has improved, and several agents are now approved for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer ( Friedlander & Ryan

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Momoe Itsumi, Masaki Shiota, Akira Yokomizo, Ario Takeuchi, Eiji Kashiwagi, Takashi Dejima, Junichi Inokuchi, Katsunori Tatsugami, Takeshi Uchiumi and Seiji Naito

bind to their cognate receptor androgen receptor (AR), and transactivate AR, resulting in the modulation of its target genes. Thus, the gold standard for the treatment of recurrent or advanced prostate cancer has been androgen-deprivation therapy, which

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Momoe Itsumi, Masaki Shiota, Akira Yokomizo, Eiji Kashiwagi, Ario Takeuchi, Katsunori Tatsugami, Junichi Inokuchi, YooHyun Song, Takeshi Uchiumi and Seiji Naito

well to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), they eventually become castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) during ADT, which is thought to remain dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling for growth in a low-androgen milieu ( Ryan & Tindall 2011

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Kesha Rana, Maria W S Chiu, Patricia K Russell, Jarrod P Skinner, Nicole K L Lee, Barbara C Fam, Jeffrey D Zajac and Helen E MacLean

-borderline testosterone can prevent loss of limb strength, and increase lean body mass and decrease fat mass ( Srinivas-Shankar et al . 2010 ). Because of these anabolic actions, there is increasing interest in the development of selective androgen receptor (AR

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S Kerkhofs, S Denayer, A Haelens and F Claessens

differentiation of male urogenital structures (male external genitalia, urethra, and prostate; Wilson et al . 1993 , Nef & Parada 2000 ). To mediate their actions, testosterone, and DHT bind to the intracellular androgen receptor (AR), a ligand

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F M Fioretti, A Sita-Lumsden, C L Bevan and G N Brooke

luminal androgen receptor (AR) subtypes. Interestingly, the luminal AR (molecular apocrine) subtype has been demonstrated to have a gene expression profile resembling that of ERα-positive tumours, and this signalling may be attributable to the AR ( Farmer

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Masaki Shiota, Akira Yokomizo and Seiji Naito

Introduction The androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway is known to play a critical role in prostate tumorigenesis and prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) either reduces the production of androgens by

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Liran Zhou, Hong Wu, Peng Lee and Zhengxin Wang

the importance of the androgen-signaling pathway in prostatic homeostasis as well as in prostate cancer, considerable efforts have been directed at revealing the mechanisms of androgen action. The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand

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Irene I Lee, Nane C Kuznik, Jaice T Rottenberg, Myles Brown and Andrew C B Cato

The androgen receptor amino-terminal domain plays a key role in p160 coactivator-stimulated gene transcription . Molecular and Cellular Biology 19 6085 – 6097 . ( ) 10.1128/MCB.19.9.6085 Ammirante M De

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Chen-Lin Hsieh, Changmeng Cai, Ahmed Giwa, Aaronica Bivins, Shao-Yong Chen, Dina Sabry, Kumara Govardhan and Lirim Shemshedini

Introduction Prostate cancer is an epithelial-derived cancer ( Cussenot et al . 1994 ) that involves the action of androgens and androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor ( Chang et al . 1988 ). This liganded AR is essential