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Pabitra B Pal, Himangshu Sonowal, Kirtikar Shukla, Satish K Srivastava and Kota V Ramana

hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction ( Campochiaro and C99-PKC412-003 Study Group 2004 , Lonn et al. 2005 , Miller et al. 2005 , Eriksson & Nystrom 2015 ). Our recent studies have demonstrated that the polyol pathway enzyme, aldose reductase

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Mingtong Xu, Xiaochao Chen, Li Yan, Hua Cheng and Weiqing Chen

studies ( Chowdhury et al . 1999 ). An increased flux of glucose through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase (ALR2) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme, is one of the main mechanisms implicated in the progression of diabetic microvascular

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S Baron, M Manin, C Aigueperse, M Berger, C Jean, G Veyssiere and L Morel

The akr1b7 gene encodes an aldose reductase-like protein that is responsible for detoxifying isocaproaldehyde generated by the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. The regulation of gene expression by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was first investigated in the MA-10 Leydig tumor cell line. The akr1b7 gene was constitutively expressed and accumulation of its mRNA was increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner by treatment with hCG. akr1b7 mRNA accumulation was sharply increased in the presence of 0.25 nM hCG and it reached a fivefold increase within 2 h. AKR1B7 protein accumulation was delayed compared with that of the corresponding mRNA. In agreement, hCG significantly increased the levels of mRNA and protein of akr1b7 in primary cultures of adult mouse Leydig cells, thus suggesting that LH potentially regulates akr1b7 gene expression in vivo. Expression of akr1b7 was developmentally regulated in the testis. Unexpectedly, levels of akr1b7 mRNA increased from embryonic day 15 to the day of birth and declined until adulthood while AKR1B7 protein levels followed an inverse pattern, suggesting an important role for translational mechanisms.

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I Paron, C D’Ambrosio, A Scaloni, M T Berlingieri, P L Pallante, A Fusco, N Bivi, G Tell and G Damante

protein that we found to be significantly upregulated by both p53 mutants is aldose reductase, for which no evident association has been described up to now. This is an interesting enzyme, whose expression has been correlated with the transformation

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K A Brown, D Boerboom, N Bouchard, M Doré, J G Lussier and J Sirois

hydrocarbons. Fourteen families of AKRs are currently known (AKR1–14), encompassing over 100 proteins, with the AKR1 family being the largest and containing the aldehyde reductases, the aldose reductases, the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) and the 5β

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Enzo Lalli

Bertagna X Jean C Martinez A 2004 Decreased expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated aldose reductase (AKR1B1) is associated with malignancy in human sporadic adrenocortical tumors . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

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Lesley A Powell, Katherine M Warpeha, Weiming Xu, Brian Walker and Elisabeth R Trimble

marked reductions in iNOS as a result of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells ( Begum & Ragolia 2000 ). Addition of a protein kinase C inhibitor, calphostin C, and an aldose reductase inhibitor

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Nicole Gallo-Payet

); mutations in PDE8B and PDE11A have been found in adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing’s syndrome, or in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ( Horvath et al. 2006 , Tsai & Beavo 2011 , Leal et al. 2015 ). Decreased expression of cAMP-regulated aldose reductase

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Sarah X Zhang, Joshua J Wang, Azar Dashti, Kenneth Wilson, Ming-Hui Zou, Luke Szweda, Jian-Xing Ma and Timothy J Lyons

2005 Aldose reductase inhibition counteracts oxidative-nitrosative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in tissue sites for diabetes complications . Diabetes 54 234 – 242 . Qaum T Xu Q Joussen AM Clemens MW Qin W Miyamoto

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Vivek Madhukar Surse, Jeena Gupta and Kulbhushan Tikoo

occurring substances to prevent the complications of diabetes. II. Inhibitory effect of coumarin and flavonoid derivatives on bovine lens aldose reductase and rabbit platelet aggregation . Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 43 1385 – 1387 . Onozato