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Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr and Xiaoli Chen

( Saito et al . 2009 ). Therefore, the conversion of energy-storing white adipose tissue (WAT) to energy expending BAT holds therapeutic potential. White adipocytes can take on a brown-like, or ‘beige’ phenotype, characterized by increased number of

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Cristina L Esteves, Val Kelly, Valérie Bégay, Simon G Lillico, Achim Leutz, Jonathan R Seckl and Karen E Chapman

Introduction First developed almost 40 years ago from Swiss mouse embryo cells, 3T3-L1 adipocytes ( Otto & Lane 2005 , Rosen & MacDougald 2006 ) have proved to be an invaluable tool, advancing our understanding of cellular mechanisms underlying

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Ting Qi, Yanming Chen, Honggui Li, Ya Pei, Shih-Lung Woo, Xin Guo, Jiajia Zhao, Xiaoxian Qian, Joseph Awika, Yuqing Huo and Chaodong Wu

systemic insulin resistance and metabolic dysregulation ( Kamei et al. 2006 ). Similarly, adipocyte-derived Th2 cytokines critically determine the status of adipose tissue inflammation by promoting macrophage alternative activation, which in turn

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Rafaela Fadoni Alponti, Luciana Godoy Viana, Norma Yamanouye and Paulo Flavio Silveira

Introduction During the prandial period, insulin stimulates the translocation of an intracellular vesicle from low density microsomal (LDM) fraction to the plasma membrane (MF) of adipocytes ( Watson & Pessin 2001 , Zeyda & Stulnig 2009 , Jordens

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Tae Woo Jung, Yoon Hee Chung, Hyoung-Chun Kim, A M Abd El-Aty and Ji Hoon Jeong

proinflammatory cytokines secreted by adipocytes and infiltrated macrophages have been shown to cause insulin resistance ( Xu et al . 2003 ), suggesting that infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue play an important role in obesity and that macrophage

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Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Malou Friederich-Persson, Anna White and Rhian M Touyz

to selectively activate MR, by converting cortisol to an inactive metabolite, cortisone ( Edwards et al . 1988 , Funder 2005 , Marzolla et al . 2012 ). Adipocytes can synthesize and secrete aldosterone which may exert autocrine and paracrine

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Junye Chen, Yi Lu, Mengyuan Tian and Qiren Huang

( Hotamisligil 2006 ). Obesity normally means adipocyte hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia, as well as an imbalance between the deposition and expenditure of energy ( Wu et al. 2017 ). Adipokines secreted from adipocytes can cause several kinds of obesity

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Diana Vargas, Noriaki Shimokawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Wendy Rosales, Adriana Parra, Ángela Castellanos, Noriyuki Koibuchi and Fernando Lizcano

al . 2014 , Robbins et al . 2014 ). Recent research has led to a deeper understanding of adipocyte physiology. These advances may provide important clues to find effective options for treating obesity ( Nedergaard et al . 2011 , Wu et al . 2013

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He Jiang, Xiao-Ping Ye, Zhong-Yin Yang, Ming Zhan, Hai-Ning Wang, Huang-Min Cao, Hui-Jun Xie, Chun-Ming Pan, Huai-Dong Song and Shuang-Xia Zhao

using differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, Ald disturbed the expression and secretion of adiponectin and PAI-1 in adipocytes ( Li et al . 2011 ). Consistent with the observations made in adipocytes, incubating preadipocytes with Ald increases the mRNA levels of

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Xinxin Xiang, Wenjiao An, Changtao Jiang, Jing Zhao, Xian Wang, Guang Sun, Yin Li and Weizhen Zhang

, replenishment of adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity in different murine models of insulin resistance in vivo ( Berg et al . 2001 , Yamauchi et al . 2001 ). Resistin, an adipocyte-secreted inflammatory molecule, has been implicated as the link between