and glucose metabolism is achieved by activation of PPARγ ( O'Sullivan 2007 ). The endocannabinoid system and the ovary In the ovary, the endocannabinoid system has been poorly investigated, but the observations that, in humans, plasma AEA
Anna Maria Di Blasio, Michele Vignali and Davide Gentilini
Adrien Georges, Aurelie Auguste, Laurianne Bessière, Anne Vanet, Anne-Laure Todeschini and Reiner A Veitia
Introduction The mammalian ovary is a complex organ, ensuring various functions essential to the reproductive process. Its most obvious role is the production and release of functional female gametes, the oocytes. In addition, the ovary also has a
FY Diao, M Xu, Y Hu, J Li, Z Xu, M Lin, L Wang, Y Zhou, Z Zhou, J Liu and J Sha
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders; it is characterized by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. To obtain a global view of those genes that might be involved in the development of this complex clinical disorder, we used recently developed cDNA microarray technology to compare differential gene expressions between normal human ovary and ovaries from PCOS patients. A total of 9216 clones randomly selected from a commercial human ovary cDNA library were screened. Among them, 290 clones showed differential expressions, including 119 known genes and 100 known or unknown expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Among 119 known genes, 88 were upregulated and 31 downregulated in the PCOS ovary, as compared with normal human ovary. These differentially expressed genes are involved in various biologic functions, such as cell division/apoptosis, regulation of gene expression and metabolism, reflecting the complexity of clinical manifestations of PCOS. The molecular characteristics established from our study will further our understanding of the pathogenesis of PCOS and help us to identify new targets for further studies and for the development of new therapeutic interventions.
Muraly Puttabyatappa and Vasantha Padmanabhan
they identified in seven patients enlarged ovaries in association with menstrual disturbances (most notably amenorrhea), sterility, pain or hyperandrogenism ( Stein & Leventhal 1935 ). Since then PCOS has been recognized as a heterogeneous condition
R González-Fernández, F Gaytán, E Martínez-Galisteo, P Porras, C A Padilla, J E Sánchez Criado and J A Bárcena
/proliferation ( Takashima et al. 1999 ), signal transduction ( Bandyopadhyay et al. 1998 , Hirota et al. 2000 , Daily et al. 2001 ) and apoptosis ( Chrestensen et al. 2000 , Daily et al. 2001 ). In the ovary, redox regulation plays a crucial role in
Xinwang Chen, Xiao Jia, Jie Qiao, Youfei Guan and Jihong Kang
Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common causes of female infertility, which affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age. It is a heterogeneous syndrome with the characteristics of hirsutism, acne, anovulation
J J Allen, S L Herrick and J E Fortune
in fetal ovaries are similar in the two species ( Campbell et al. 2003 ). Our lab observed the first primordial and primary follicles in fetal bovine ovaries around 90 and 140 days of gestation, respectively ( Yang & Fortune 2008 ), consistent with
M Shozu, N Minami, H Yokoyama, M Inoue, H Kurihara, K Matsushima and K Kuno
PMSG followed by 7.5 IU of hCG i.p. 48 h later. Oviducts and ovaries were excised from mice 15 h after hCG administration and were placed into dishes containing PBS. COC was recovered by dissection of both the ampulla and the oviduct, and under a
L J Moran, P A Mundra, H J Teede and P J Meikle
Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in reproductive-aged women affecting 12–18% of women ( March et al . 2010 ). It is a reproductive, metabolic and psychological condition
B R Leeuwenberg, P R Hurst and K P McNatty
IGF-I has been implicated as a local and/or systemic regulator of ovarian function by acting alone or as an amplifier of the actions of gonadotrophins, thereby influencing follicular growth and ovulation. In the sheep it is uncertain as to whether IGF-I can fulfil an autocrine or paracrine role, since mRNA expression and peptide synthesis have not previously been demonstrated.
Using in situ hybridization with ovine and human riboprobes, IGF-I mRNA was found in all major steroidogenic cell types of the sheep ovary, namely the granulosa, theca and luteal cells and, to a lesser extent, the stroma. IGF-I mRNA was found to be expressed in the granulosa and thecal cells of early antral follicles and thereafter in these cell types as the follicles increased in diameter. Evidence for IGF-I mRNA expression in preantral follicles could not be demonstrated. No obvious differences in the levels of expression were observed in ovaries recovered during the luteal phase, follicular phase, anoestrus or after exogenous FSH treatment. IGF-I expression was confirmed by Northern blotting and PCR. These findings are consistent with the notion that IGF-I may have an autocrine or paracrine role in enhancing ovarian function in the sheep.